### What Is A Functional Relationship In Psychology?

S.B.17 Functional Relations, An Objective of Science 11/13/2017 Science has not been satisfied with merely describing an event or observing an event. Finding scientific laws is the long-range goal of science. Once an individual can control an event, the other commonly stated goals of science are also accomplished; that is, he/she can also predict, describe, and explain an event.

• Let us take an example from physics to illustrate the lawfulness of science referred to above.
• Ohms Law describes the relationship of various events in electricity.
• Voltage = Current x Resistance, or E = I R, i.e.500 = (10) (50) If a simple value in this formula is changed, the end product changes also; for example, if resistance changes to 60, the outcome of E = I R becomes 600 = (1O) (60) The term used to describe a value that fluctuates or varies is “variable.” A general formula in describing this type of variable relationship in psychology could be expressed as: B = F(x) This is read Behavior (B) is a function (F) of a variable (x).17-1.

If the behavior of adding rapidly is a function of noise, the letter “B” stands for A. noise B. reading C. adding speed Answer. (C) 17-2. B = F(x) is a formula which states that A. behavior has no pattern B. behavior cannot be predicted C. behavior can always occur D.

• A behavior (B) is a function (F) of a variable (x) Answer. (D) 17-3.
• A scientific understanding of behavior implies that A.
• The physiological processes underlying it are known B.
• The principle will always be used for good C.
• The relevant variables have been identified D.
• We have the philosophical explanations Answer.

(C) Such lawful relationships are called functional relationships. They establish cause-and-effect, that is, some change in one event will bring about a corresponding change in a second event.17-4. A cause-and-effect relationship is technically called a _ relationship.

• Answer. (functional) A functional relationship would be shown if we found that, after a drug was administered (event # 1) the person could remember a list of words better (event #2).17-5.
• A change in event #1 resulted in a change in event #2.
• In order to have a functional relationship, how many events are necessary? Answer.

(2) If one has found a lawful relationship, one can predict, provided that a certain event happens. If he/she can control the variables s/he can control the outcome.17-6. Assume that a lawful relationship between event A and event B has been established.

1. When you manipulate event A, you can _ event B.A.
2. Control B. forget C.
3. Predict D.
4. A and C Answer. (D) 17-7.
5. All of science is just a description of any event as it occurs.A. True B.
7. When other variables are controlled, and one manipulates the X by increasing it 5 points, variable B decreases 5 points.

If there is a 3 point increase in X, a 3 point decrease in variable B occurs.” This statement implies a possible functional relationship.A. True B. False Answer. (A) 17-9. Science is an expressed set of behaviors searching for order in terms of functional relationships.A.

True B. False Answer. (A) 17-10. A scientific understanding of behavior and the lawfulness of behavior implies that A. the psysiological processes underlying it are conscious B. the events related to the behavior are lawful C. the relevant variables have been introspectively defined D. we have the philosophical explanations Answer.

(B) Below are 8 terms which are synonymous as we are using them in the SB unit. Here is a mnemonic to help learn them: IF SB C LID I ndependent-Dependent variables F unctional Relationship S -R Law B = f(x) C ause-effect Relationship L awful Relationship I f-Then Relationship D eterministic Paradigm 17-11.

Which does not belong with the others? A. functional relationship B. correlation’s C. independent-dependent variable D. if A, then B E. B = f(x) Answer. (B) 17-12. Which of the following is/are equivalent to B = f(x), in the language of science? A. cause-effect relationship B. independent-dependent variable relationship C.

functional relationship D. stimulus-response law E. All of the above Answer. (E) B = f(x) means that under certain conditions, given one variable, you can determine or predict the other. A study of functional relations cannot tell you how Beethoven came to react the way he did since we can not go back in time, but with control of the variables, one can make a person react that way.

#### What does a functional relationship mean in psychology?

Resource ID: M8M2L15* Grade Range: 8 The following tables, mappings, and sets are all examples of functions,

 x y -2 -1 -1 1 0 3 1 5 2 7

/td>

 x y – 3 9 – 1 1 0 0 1 1 3 9

/td>

Now that you have studied examples of functions, use your notes to describe the similarities and differences of functions that are represented in the forms of tables, mappings, and sets. The following graphs are also examples of functions, To determine whether or not a graph is a function, you can use the vertical line test. Watch the video below on how to use a vertical line test to determine if a graph is a function. Source Vertical line test, gdawgrapper, YouTube The following tables, mappings, sets, and graphs are all examples of relations that are not functions,

 x y -3 -5 -2 -4 -2 -5 1 -1 2 0

/td>

 x y 5 20 3 14 2 11 2 10 1 8

/td>

Now that you have studied examples of relations that are not functions, use your notes to describe the similarities and differences of relations that are not functions. A relation is simply a set of ordered pairs. Not every relation is a functional relationship.

1. A function exists when each x -value (input, independent variable) is paired with exactly one y -value (output, dependent variable).
2. This pairing is also referred to as a functional relationship.
4. Source Relations and Functions, AVL0809, YouTube Now that you have viewed the video, let’s practice identifying functions.

Determine if the given table, graph, or mapping is a functional relationship. Then tell why or why not a functional relationship exists. Use your notes to record your answers.1. Does the graph below show a function? 2. Does the data in the set below represent a functional relationship? 3. Does the graph below show a functional relationship? 4. Does the mapping below represent a function? 5. Does the data in the table below represent a functional relationship?

 x y 5 20 3 14 2 11 2 10 1 8

6. Mr. Pappas placed a coordinate grid over a map of the city. He used his office building as the origin of the coordinate grid. The points on the graph below represent locations of meetings that Mr. Pappas will be attending during the week. Does the graph represent a function? 7. Does the mapping below represent a functional relationship? 8. Lizzie was given the set of points shown below. Does the data in the set represent a functional relationship? Use your notes to create one example of a function and one example of a relation that is not a function. Explain why your examples are/are not functions.

#### How do you have a functional relationship?

To have a functional relationship you have to be willing to risk loosing it everyday, by telling your truth. If you don’t feel free to tell your truth, start asking yourself why you think it’s so important to stay, and what else you are willing to lose besides your self-esteem.

## What does by functional relationship mean?

Functional relationship means a complementary and interactive relationship among land uses or development, including at a minimum a substantial and positive exchange of human interaction, goods, resources, institutions, services, jobs or workers between land uses or developments.

## What does functional relationship mean in organization?

143.22 Functional – A functional reporting relationship establishes a connection between positions or organizational units at different management levels based on the specialized nature of the function for which a mutual responsibility is shared. In this type of situation — often referred to as an indirect reporting relationship — the higher level position or unit provides functional guidance and support to positions or units lower in the organizational structure.

#### What is a functional relationship example?

S.B.17 Functional Relations, An Objective of Science 11/13/2017 Science has not been satisfied with merely describing an event or observing an event. Finding scientific laws is the long-range goal of science. Once an individual can control an event, the other commonly stated goals of science are also accomplished; that is, he/she can also predict, describe, and explain an event.

Let us take an example from physics to illustrate the lawfulness of science referred to above. Ohms Law describes the relationship of various events in electricity. Voltage = Current x Resistance, or E = I R, i.e.500 = (10) (50) If a simple value in this formula is changed, the end product changes also; for example, if resistance changes to 60, the outcome of E = I R becomes 600 = (1O) (60) The term used to describe a value that fluctuates or varies is “variable.” A general formula in describing this type of variable relationship in psychology could be expressed as: B = F(x) This is read Behavior (B) is a function (F) of a variable (x).17-1.

If the behavior of adding rapidly is a function of noise, the letter “B” stands for A. noise B. reading C. adding speed Answer. (C) 17-2. B = F(x) is a formula which states that A. behavior has no pattern B. behavior cannot be predicted C. behavior can always occur D.

• A behavior (B) is a function (F) of a variable (x) Answer. (D) 17-3.
• A scientific understanding of behavior implies that A.
• The physiological processes underlying it are known B.
• The principle will always be used for good C.
• The relevant variables have been identified D.
• We have the philosophical explanations Answer.

(C) Such lawful relationships are called functional relationships. They establish cause-and-effect, that is, some change in one event will bring about a corresponding change in a second event.17-4. A cause-and-effect relationship is technically called a _ relationship.

1. Answer. (functional) A functional relationship would be shown if we found that, after a drug was administered (event # 1) the person could remember a list of words better (event #2).17-5.
2. A change in event #1 resulted in a change in event #2.
3. In order to have a functional relationship, how many events are necessary? Answer.

(2) If one has found a lawful relationship, one can predict, provided that a certain event happens. If he/she can control the variables s/he can control the outcome.17-6. Assume that a lawful relationship between event A and event B has been established.

When you manipulate event A, you can _ event B.A. control B. forget C. predict D. A and C Answer. (D) 17-7. All of science is just a description of any event as it occurs.A. True B. False Answer. (B) 17-8. “When other variables are controlled, and one manipulates the X by increasing it 5 points, variable B decreases 5 points.

If there is a 3 point increase in X, a 3 point decrease in variable B occurs.” This statement implies a possible functional relationship.A. True B. False Answer. (A) 17-9. Science is an expressed set of behaviors searching for order in terms of functional relationships.A.

2. A) 17-10.
3. A scientific understanding of behavior and the lawfulness of behavior implies that A.
4. The psysiological processes underlying it are conscious B.
5. The events related to the behavior are lawful C.
6. The relevant variables have been introspectively defined D.
7. We have the philosophical explanations Answer.

(B) Below are 8 terms which are synonymous as we are using them in the SB unit. Here is a mnemonic to help learn them: IF SB C LID I ndependent-Dependent variables F unctional Relationship S -R Law B = f(x) C ause-effect Relationship L awful Relationship I f-Then Relationship D eterministic Paradigm 17-11.

1. Which does not belong with the others? A.
2. Functional relationship B.
3. Correlation’s C.
4. Independent-dependent variable D.
5. If A, then B E.
7. B) 17-12.
8. Which of the following is/are equivalent to B = f(x), in the language of science? A.
9. Cause-effect relationship B.
10. Independent-dependent variable relationship C.

functional relationship D. stimulus-response law E. All of the above Answer. (E) B = f(x) means that under certain conditions, given one variable, you can determine or predict the other. A study of functional relations cannot tell you how Beethoven came to react the way he did since we can not go back in time, but with control of the variables, one can make a person react that way.

### What are characteristics of a functional relationship?

The seven characteristics of functional work relationships One of the key contributors to a practice’s success is the presence of functional work relationships. Researchers point to seven characteristics that health care organizations should foster among physicians and staff.

Characteristic What it looks like
Trust
• • Seeking input from others.
• • Allowing others to complete their work without unnecessary oversight.
• • Feeling comfortable discussing successes and failures.
Diversity • Including people who have different backgrounds or perspectives. • Encouraging those who think differently about important issues to share their opinions.
Mindfulness
1. • Being open to new ideas.
2. • Giving attention to and talking freely about what is and isn’t working.
3. • Adjusting routines in response to current situations instead of running on autopilot.
Interrelatedness • Considering current tasks as well as larger goals. • Being aware of individual roles and how they affect other functions and people in the practice.
Respect • Being considerate, honest, and tactful • Valuing others’ opinions.
Varied interaction • Understanding the importance of both social and task-related relationships. • Encouraging people to pursue activities outside of work.
Effective communication • Understanding when certain methods of communication are more appropriate and timely than others. • Using “rich communication” (e.g., face-to-face meetings) for more sensitive matters. • Using “lean communication” (e.g., memos) for routine matters.

### How do you tell if a relationship is not a function?

1.2 Determining Whether a Relation Represents a Function A relation is a set of ordered pairs. The set of the first components of each ordered pair is called the domain and the set of the second components of each ordered pair is called the range, Consider the following set of ordered pairs.

The first numbers in each pair are the first five natural numbers. The second number in each pair is twice that of the first.1, 2, 2, 4, 3, 6, 4, 8, 5, 10 The domain is \left\ 2,\text 3,\text 4,\text 5\right\}. The range is \left\ 4,\text 6,\text 8,\text 10\right\}. Note that each value in the domain is also known as an input value, or independent variable, and is often labeled with the lowercase letter \text x\text,

Each value in the range is also known as an output value, or dependent variable, and is often labeled lowercase letter \text y\text, A function, \text f\text, is a relation that assigns a single value in the range to each value in the domain, In other words, no x -values are repeated.

• For our example that relates the first five natural numbers to numbers double their values, this relation is a function because each element in the domain, \left\ 2,\text 3,\text 4,\text 5\right\}, is paired with exactly one element in the range, \left\ 4,\text 6,\text 8,\text 10\right\}.
• Now let’s consider the set of ordered pairs that relates the terms “even” and “odd” to the first five natural numbers.

It would appear as odd, 1, even, 2, odd, 3, even, 4, odd, 5 Notice that each element in the domain, \left\ \text \text \right\} is not paired with exactly one element in the range, \left\ 2,\text 3,\text 4,\text 5\right\}. For example, the term “odd” corresponds to three values from the domain, \left\ 3,\text 5\right\} and the term “even” corresponds to two values from the range, \left\ 4\right\}.

This violates the definition of a function, so this relation is not a function. Figure 1-2 compares relations that are functions and not functions. Figure 1-2: (a) This relationship is a function because each input is associated with a single output. Note that input \text q\text and \text r\text both give output \text n\text,

(b) This relationship is also a function. In this case, each input is associated with a single output. (c) This relationship is not a function because input \text \text q\text is associated with two different outputs. A function is a relation in which each possible input value leads to exactly one output value.

Identify the input values. Identify the output values. If each input value leads to only one output value, classify the relationship as a function. If any input value leads to two or more outputs, do not classify the relationship as a function.

The coffee shop menu, shown in Figure 1-3 consists of items and their prices.

Is price a function of the item? Is the item a function of the price?

Figure 1-3 In a particular math class, the overall percent grade corresponds to a grade point average. Is grade point average a function of the percent grade? Is the percent grade a function of the grade point average? Table 1-1 shows a possible rule for assigning grade points.

Table 1-1

 Percent grade Grade point average 0–56 57–61 62–66 67–71 72–77 78–86 87–91 92–100 0.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Table 1-2 lists the five greatest baseball players of all time in order of rank.

Table 1-2

Player Rank
Babe Ruth 1
Willie Mays 2
Ty Cobb 3
Walter Johnson 4
Hank Aaron 5

ol> Is the rank a function of the player name? Is the player name a function of the rank?

Access for free at : 1.2 Determining Whether a Relation Represents a Function

#### What are some examples of function relationships in real life?

A weekly salary is a function of the hourly pay rate and the number of hours worked. Compound interest is a function of initial investment, interest rate, and time. Supply and demand: As price goes up, demand goes down.

### What are the three types of functional relationships?

There are three types of functional relationships: Avoiders, Asserters and Active Listeners.

### What is functional relationship in love life?

6. Emotional presence – Functional: Are the two of you emotionally present for one another? If so, you have a functional relationship. That means you check in with how the other feels, offer support during difficult times, not withdraw affection or praise, remember things important to you, and want to spend time with you.

#### What is a synonym for functional relationship?

Functional relationship > synonyms » operational relationship exp. »operative connection exp. »operative relation exp. »operative relationship exp.

### Does functional mean psychological?

Adj.1. denoting or referring to a disorder for which there is no known physiological or structural basis. In psychology and psychiatry, functional disorders are improperly considered equivalent to psychogenic disorders.

### What are the two types of function relationship?

Types of Relations – Given below is a list of different types of relations:

• Empty Relation – A relation is an empty relation if it has no elements, that is, no element of set A is mapped or linked to any element of A. It is denoted by R = ∅.
• Universal Relation – A relation R in a set A is a universal relation if each element of A is related to every element of A, i.e., R = A × A. It is called the full relation.
• Identity Relation – A relation R on A is said to be an identity relation if each element of A is related to itself, that is, R =
• Inverse Relation – Define R to be a relation from set P to set Q i.e., R ∈ P × Q. The relation R -1 is said to be an Inverse relation if R -1 from set Q to P is denoted by R -1 =,
• Reflexive Relation – A binary relation R defined on a set A is said to be reflexive if, for every element a ∈ A, we have aRa, that is, (a, a) ∈ R.
• Symmetric Relation – A binary relation R defined on a set A is said to be symmetric if and only if, for elements a, b ∈ A, we have aRb, that is, (a, b) ∈ R, then we must have bRa, that is, (b, a) ∈ R.
• Transitive Relation – A relation R is transitive if and only if (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R for a, b, c ∈ A
• Equivalence Relation – A relation R defined on a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if and only if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
• Antisymmetric Relation – A relation R on a set A is said to be antisymmetric if (a, b) ∈ R and (b, a) ∈ R ⇒ a = b.

## What is required to build functional relationships?

How Can We Build Functional Relationships in Families? Introduction Family relationships generally mean a relationship between two or more people in a family who connect, share ideas and care about each other; they help each other practically and emotionally. And this has several aspects, such as mutual respect and love, humour, boundaries, trust, honesty, compromise, good communication, anger control, fighting fair and more.

1. How Can We Make Family Relationships Functional? Everyone wishes to have a functional and positive relationship with his or her family.
2. We may be blind to see how dysfunctional family relationships affect family members, for instance, children feeling insecure and unloved, conflicts, financial problems, and mistrust; all these points affect the family’s well-being.

Even while certain counselling facilities exist in African nations, there is still a dearth of resources that would encourage us to create a stable family environment. The methods of strengthening family relationships and making them more functional; are by spending time and making memories together, having mutual respect for one another, celebrating events together, accepting mutual and healthy discussions, and laughing and having fun times.

Making Functional Boundaries Family boundaries are paramount as we build a functional relationship because this will help and invite total respect and understanding in the family. As the family is built on honouring its core values and standards, the connection won’t be harmed if everyone is clear about what they are each expected to do.

To improve partnerships, all participants must comprehend and value each other’s unique conduct and personalities. If everyone understands where they stand with each (who is the uncle, who is the aunt, etc.), a tone will be set on to address each other and know what boundary shouldn’t be crossed.

• Positive Communication It is very important to address the challenges that family members may face (whether individually or within the family).
• So, to overcome these challenges, look at it from each other’s perspective so that you can come to a balanced compromise that will yield positive outcomes.
• Addressing issues and communicating with each other reduces and controls conflicts between individuals, eventually contributing to peace and harmony in the family.

When there is less mistrust among family members, people will feel better and happier about themselves and be able to open up to others without fear of being humiliated, embarrassed, or disgraced. Family members should interact positively because of this.

### What are functional relationships at work?

Find and sustain your functional team relationship – Great team members and leaders are knowledgeable and able to engage and inspire others. However, today it is even more important to know your limitations and have a workmate who can complement your solid sides and fill the gaps. Successful functional team relationships are those that:

• Understand and appreciate others’ strengths and functions needed to support your work.
• Delegate work and roles based on already built bonding relationships.
• Knowing the other person’s strengths and weaknesses without judging.
• Workmates do not only work together – they trust each other.

## What is your view of a well functioning relationship?

What Does a Healthy Relationship Look Like? Share What Does a Healthy Relationship Look Like? Healthy relationships involve honesty, trust, respect and open communication between partners and they take effort and compromise from both people. There is no imbalance of power.

Respect for privacy and space. You don’t have to be with your partner 24/7. Your partner encourages you to spend time with friends without them, and to participate in activities that you enjoy. You feel comfortable expressing your opinions and concerns to your partner. Your feel physically safe and your partner doesn’t force you to have sex or to do things that make you feel uncomfortable. Your partner respects your wishes and feelings and you can compromise and negotiate when there are disagreements or conflicts.

The foundation of a healthy relationship includes:

Boundaries: You and your partner are able to find ways to meet each other’s’ needs in ways that you both feel comfortable with. Communication: You and your partner can share your feelings, even when you don’t agree, in a way that makes the other person feel safe, heard, and not judged. Trust: Building trust can take time and allows couples to be vulnerable with one another knowing that they can rely on the other person. Consent: Most commonly used when you’re being sexually active, giving consent means that you are okay with what is happening, and that no one is forcing you or guilting you into doing anything that you don’t want to do. Consent can be given and taken back at any time, and giving consent once does not mean you automatically give consent in the future.

See how these things go hand in hand by exploring the other sections to your left. Please keep in mind that in some abusive relationships, trying to enforce boundaries, honest communication, trust, and other healthy behaviors could put your safety at risk.

• Remember, abuse is about power and control and someone who is abusive might not want to give up their control over you.
• Be careful.
• If you feel like someone is disrespecting you or is being abusive, check out the “Get Help” section.
• You’re not alone.
• Having boundaries is like drawing a line.
• One side has the things you are okay with and the other side, those that you are not okay with, don’t feel ready for, or make you uncomfortable.

This line looks different for everyone, so it is important for you to know where yours needs to be drawn. Setting boundaries is a way to teach your partner about your needs, and let you know when something doesn’t feel right. You are allowed to put your needs before someone else’s needs, especially if their needs make you uncomfortable.

• Step 1: What are your boundaries? Think about these categories and what they mean in terms of your relationship.
• Physical: Are you okay with public displays of affection? Does affection make you uncomfortable? Do you hate it or love it when your partner tickles you? Do you need a lot of alone time? Learn more about,

Emotional : Are you able to share what you are feeling right away or do you need some time to think about it? Do you need your partner to be available anytime you have a crisis? When are you ready to say I love you? Learn more about, Sexual: Do you need to get to know your partner a while before engaging in any kind of sexual activity, or are you okay getting physical right away? What sexual activity are you okay with? Learn more about,

You don’t have to sit down with your partner with a check list of all of the things that make you uncomfortable, but you do have be open and honest. Some of these things might come up early in the relationship, like if you are a virgin and don’t want to have sex until you’re ready.

Some of these things may not come up for a while, like if your partner wants to share passwords after dating for 6 months. When your needs are different than your partner’s, have a conversation; you don’t need to give an explanation. It may be awkward, but having the tough conversations is a part of having a healthy relationship.

When your partner listens to you and respects you, it builds trust. Step 3: Recognizing when the line has been crossed. Sometimes, boundaries get crossed even after you’ve talked with your partner; this is where trusting yourself comes in. You may be sad, anxious or angry or you may not know exactly what you are feeling.

• If something doesn’t feel right to you, it probably isn’t.
• S tep 4: Responding.
• If a boundary has been crossed by your partner who didn’t know where your line was drawn, have an honest conversation.
• It could be something as simple as saying, “Hey, I really don’t like it when you _.

This makes me really uncomfortable. Do you think next time you can _ instead?” This might take some back and forth before coming to an agreement that meets both of your needs, but your relationship will be stronger because of it. If a boundary has been crossed even though you had already been clear about your boundaries,,

• Crossing a line might be obvious, like if you say no to having sex, but your partner uses physical force to make you do something you don’t want to do.
• But it can also be more subtle, like if your partner guilts you into something, begs you until you give in or threatens to break up with you unless you do what they want.

Open and honest communication is an important part of every relationship because it allows you to share who you are and what you need from the people around you. Miscommunication is common, but can often lead to problems, misunderstandings, and hurt feelings.

• Speaking: Be open and clear about how you are feeling; if you don’t understand something, tell them; use “I statements” so that the other person doesn’t feel like you are blaming or attacking them (“I feel that.); be honest, even if you think the other person might not like hearing I how you truly feel; apologize when you are wrong or hurt the other person; when talking about something negative, also mention something positive.

Listening: Pay attention without distractions (put your phone away) when the other person is talking; listen to what they are saying instead of just thinking about how to respond; wait for them to finish talking before you say something; use acknowledging statements like “interesting,” to let them know you hear what they are saying; ask questions if you don’t understand something to avoid confusion and misunderstanding; don’t leave them hanging (if you need to think about what they said before responding, tell them that); be prepared to hear something that you don’t like and really think about it before responding.

Body Language: Make eye contact; face them; give your full attention and lean in as they are speaking. Digital Communication: Don’t have an important conversation over text or online. When chatting online, focus on the conversation instead of being distracted by other things or having multiple other conversations; if you can’t respond, let the other person know so you don’t leave them hanging.

Where and when to have an important conversation: When talking about something important, talk when you are feeling calm or take some time to cool down if you had a fight. Talk about your concerns before they become problems and get worse. Make sure you are talking privately so you can be open about your feelings.

If you feel that your partner doesn’t do these things, or, be careful when using these tips and check out our section. It can take time to build trust. And while it can be hard to trust someone, especially if your trust was broken in the past, you can’t blame your current partner for something someone else did.

Here are some ways to help build trust: Be reliable: If you needed your partner to listen to you because you were having a bad day, or if you needed a ride home from school, would they be there for you? Would you be there for them? Respect boundaries: When you tell your partner that something makes you uncomfortable, do they respect that? Does it go both ways? Be honest: Does your partner tell you how they feel instead of just giving you the silent treatment? Do you tell your partner how you feel, and make an effort to talk things through? If you made a mistake, would you tell your partner? Would your partner tell you? Walk the walk, don’t just talk the talk: Do what you say and say what you mean,

Consent is an agreement between two people, given through words or actions, that they are both clearly and enthusiastically willing to engage in sexual activity. Silence or lack of resistance does not count as consent. Some people aren’t able to give consent, such as individuals who are drunk, sleeping or unconscious, and some people with intellectual disabilities.

Consent involves active communication, and knowing that one person always has to right to withdraw consent. This means that someone can consent to one activity (kissing) but not consent to another (sex). Consent, like sex, should be about respecting each other to make their own decisions about their body.

#### What is the difference between functional and dysfunctional relationship?

A functional relationship is one in which we feel emotionally safe. A dysfunctional relationship is one in which we are frightened or on alert, in which we feel trapped or oppressed, in which we feel disrespected or unheard.

#### What are the 3 characteristics of functional approach?

Focus Questions: –

• What is functional assessment?
• What are the three main functional assessment approaches and how are they used?
• What ethical considerations are necessary when implementing functional assessment?

Functional assessment (FA) refers to a variety of approaches, including indirect, observational, and experimental/functional analysis procedures (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003; Hagopian, Rooker, Jessel, & DeLeon, 2013; Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1994; Mueller, Nkosi, & Hine, 2011).

FA has been found to be useful with a wide range of behaviors and populations, such as feeding disorders (Gale, Eikeseth, & Rudrud, 2011; LaRue et al., 2011), chronic hand mouthing (Roscoe, Iwata, & Zhou, 2013), off task behavior of children in the classroom (Meyer, 1999), social avoidance (Harper, Iwata, & Camp, 2013), aggression and self-injurious behaviors (Fritz, Iwata, Hammond, Bloom, 2013), elopement (Tarbox, Wallace, &Williams, 2003), hand flapping of children (Mueller, Sterling-Turner, & Scattone, 2001), hair twirling (Deaver, Miltenberger, & Stricker, 2001), and rumination (Lyons et al., 2007).

The spring 2013 issue of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is devoted to FA-related research reflecting the strong empirical foundation that has contributed to the development of this approach. Furthermore, FA is a relatively versatile approach that, following instruction, has been implemented by parents (Gale, Eikeseth, & Rudrud, 2011; Shayne & Miltenberger, 2013), students (Iwata et al., 2000), teachers (Wallace, Doney, Mintz-Resudek, & Tarbox, 2004), and staff (Moore & Fisher, 2007).

1. The main reason for conducting a FA is to identify the possible causes of an individual’s challenging behavior so that an effective treatment can be designed (Chander & Dahlquist, 2010).
2. Identification of the variables maintaining the challenging behavior prior to designing treatment is necessary since certain treatments can be contra-indicated or ineffective, depending on the function of the behavior (Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994; Newcomer & Lewis, 2004).

Other reasons for using a FA include that it:

• Is required by federal law (IDEIA, 2004)
• May provide convincing evidence for treatment team decision-making and provide accountability
• May result in less use of a punishment procedure (Pelios, Morren, Tesch, & Axelrod,1999)
• Is recommended by professional associations (National American School Psychologists)

A FA approach is used to gather data regarding why the individual’s challenging behavior is occurring. Challenging behaviors may serve a purpose or function for the individual and are often a function of environmental conditions (Hanley, 2012). After the reinforcers maintaining the individual’s challenging behavior are clearly identified, it should be possible to predict the circumstances under which the behavior is likely to happen and what is causing it to recur.

• The motivating conditions and antecedents for the individual’s challenging behavior may be altered to decrease that behavior.
• For example, if Mary cries and hits herself due to fatigue when her bedtime approaches, then an earlier bedtime can be arranged.
• Similarly, Darrell’s hitting and screaming for candy at the grocery store may be prevented by bringing some of his favorite snack on the shopping trip and keeping the trip short.

Additionally, more appropriate behaviors that achieve the same result may be taught, called functional replacement behavior, For example, Nija’s crying when she wants her doll can be decreased by teaching her to make the sign for doll in situations where she cried to get it in the past. Figure 1. The Functional Assessment Process. There are three main categories of functional assessment approaches—indirect (e.g., questionnaires, rating scales), observational, and experimental/functional analysis. Gathering information about the conditions surrounding the behavior, asking relevant individuals questions about the behavior are initial steps.

1. If the results of indirect and observational assessment are unclear, testing the possible maintaining variables for the individual’s challenging behavior would next be performed.
2. See Figure 1 of the FA process for an outline of this overall way to proceed when addressing the individual’s challenging behavior.

An indirect functional assessment is a procedure in which information about the challenging behavior is gathered from persons who are closest to the individual, such as parent(s), teachers, service providers, and aides. Rating scales, questionnaires, and interviews are used to gather information on potential factors that contribute to the individual’s challenging behavior (e.g., O’Neill et al., 1997).

One example of an indirect assessment method is the Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a 16-item questionnaire that can be administered to individuals who know the person with challenging behavior well to identify antecedents and consequences correlated with the behavior (Iwata, DeLeon, & Roscoe, 2013).

When using an open-ended FA interview, persons who are the closest to the individual with challenging behaviors are asked to describe in detail the circumstances occurring before and after the challenging behavior, the conditions under which it occurs most and least, its characteristics, and more (Hanley, 2012; O’Neill et al., 1997).

Correlated variables noted from the information gathered during the interview can then be further examined with other types of FA. Additionally, an indirect functional assessment may be helpful with initially defining the challenging behavior since the relevant individuals are asked to describe exactly what the individual does when performing the challenging behavior.

There are limitations of using an indirect FA. Since the type of data gathered with indirect methods is not based on objective direct observation, it may be laced with differing perspectives and subjective viewpoints and be prone to memory errors. For example, interview data can provide much information, but can also be biased.

1. A parent may relay during an interview that her child’s challenging behavior only “occurs when his dad is taking care of him.” In this example, the parent seems to identify the father as part of the problem.
2. In a recent study, Iwata et al.
3. 2013) found that reliability, or the agreement between raters, using the FAST was 71.5%.

The validity of the FAST, or an outcome comparison of FAST to an experimental analysis of behavior, was found to be 63.8% across 69 cases. These results suggest that although indirect methods, such as the FAST, can be a quick means of obtaining preliminary information about the nature of the individual’s challenging behavior, additional corroborating evidence about the function of the behavior is necessary.

1. This additional evidence may be obtained by the therapist or teacher conducting an observational FA.
2. In an observational functional assessment, the professional directly and unobtrusively observes the individual’s challenging behavior in the natural environment, and records the circumstances surrounding the behavior (Lalli, Browder, Mace, & Brown, 1993).

One method of collecting observational assessment information is to use a time chart, where a mark is made in the appropriate cell to indicate the time period and day in which a particular behavior was observed (Touchette, MacDonald, & Langer, 1985).

Table 6: Example of Time Chart Data Sheet

 M T W Th F S S 7:00 8:00 9:00 X 10:00 X X X 11:00 X X 12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 X = at least one instance of the behavior

Data is collected on the antecedents, behavior, and consequences (the ABCs of behavior ) as they unfold in the situation where the challenging behavior most often occurs. This procedure of writing down in as much detail and objective a manner as possible is called ABC functional assessment,

1. An ABC functional assessment often takes place in multiple settings or under different conditions (e.g., during math, language, or physical education instruction) so as to provide similar and contrasting information about the situations where the challenging behaviors are likely to occur.
2. The degree of consistency in co-occurrence of certain antecedents and/or consequences with the challenging behavior across 30-60-min sessions held across 5 or more days is analyzed.

These data may also serve as baseline information to compare the effects of later implementation of treatments to decrease the individual’s challenging behavior. Teachers, families, or staff may record the circumstances surrounding the individual’s challenging behavior.

For instance, Annette may scream when adults around her are talking and when she does this, an adult typically asks her to be quiet. Examples of antecedents within the learning environment may include instructional content, teacher proximity, and peer interactions. Positive reinforcers for the challenging behavior may include certain language, gestures, removal of demands, physical touch, or eye contact by teachers or other students.

See Table 7 for an example of an ABC recording data sheet.

Table 7: Example of ABC Recording Data Sheet

 Client: Barbara Beam Situation: Special education class. Picture naming task with teacher’s assistant (TA) Observer: Therapist People Present: 15 other students, teacher, TA Time Antecedent Behavior Consequence 1:30 pm TA hold up picture & “What’s this?” “hoose” “Good, Barbara, that’s it: horse.” 1:45 pm Picture of flower presented “What’s this?” “hoose” “No, it’s a flower” Flower & “What’s this?” No response “Flower, say flower” Flower & “What’s this?” Cry, flap hands “Quiet, Barbara” Flower & “What’s this?” Grab card & rips it while screaming and flapping hands “Barbara, no!” 1:52 pm Slowly stops crying, sitting quietly, finger flicking

A direct observational FA can provide an objective means of gathering information that may help to substantiate indirect assessment findings. The data generated from an ABC recording procedure can be subjected to a conditional probability analysis of the correlated observed antecedent and consequence events to determine which events are most likely to be associated with the challenging behavior (e.g., frequency of X antecedent co-occurring with behavior divided by the total number of times X occurred multiplied by 100).

1. However, it should be recognized that observational methods are correlational and so causal conclusions are not possible.
2. There may be other factors involved in contributing to the occurrence of the individual’s challenging behavior that are involved and have not been identified.
3. Functional Analysis involves an experimental test of the different possible functions for the client’s problem behavior (e.g., attention positive reinforcement, tangible positive reinforcement, demand/negative reinforcement).

FAn has been established as a clinically effective method of identifying the function of challenging behavior and treating it based on several decades of accumulated research (Beavers, Iwata, & Lerman, 2013). Using a standard FAn, attention, demand, tangible, and alone conditions are compared to a play/recreational control condition (e.g., Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994).

1. The attention condition is conducted to determine if the individual’s problem behavior is due to attention positive reinforcement.
2. Under conditions of social deprivation and in the presence of one or two adults, eye contact, physical contact, reprimands, and verbal interaction “No, don’t do that” or similar comments that typically are given by others in the individual’s natural environment are delivered immediately after the individual’s challenging behavior.

Note that this condition may be tailored to the specific stimuli found to correlate with the occurrence of the individual’s challenging behavior based on indirect and observational FA. The demand condition is conducted to determine if the individual’s problem behavior is due to escape/avoidance of task demands or activities (i.e., negative reinforcement).

The therapist or teacher presents an activity or instruction to complete a task that the individual has in the past (based on interview or observational data) had difficulty in completing even when physically guided to do so. If the individual engages in the challenging behavior at any time, then the therapist immediately turns away from the client for 30 s.

The tangible condition is conducted to evaluate whether tangible positive reinforcement is maintaining the individual’s challenging behavior. Based on information gathered from other assessments (e.g., indirect, observational), preferred objects are placed out of reach (e.g., on a shelf).

1. When the individual engages in the challenging behavior, that preferred item is delivered for 30 s.
2. In the alone condition, the client is in a room by him/herself with no toys or activities.
3. Note that, as is the case in each of these conditions, all safety concerns should be addressed and appropriate precautions taken.

The therapist observes the client’s behavior for the purpose of data collection from a one-way mirror or video camera. This condition involves a situation in which low levels of stimulation are present in order to test whether self-stimulation or automatic reinforcement is maintaining the client’s problem behavior.

• The client is placed in the therapy room alone, without any toys or materials that would provide a source of stimulation.
• In the play condition, toys or activities are presented and the therapist interacts socially with the client.
• This condition serves as a comparison or control condition to rule out confounding variables such as the challenging behavior due to variables present in the attention, tangible, or demand conditions (e.g., the presence of the therapist, materials, social interaction).

The therapist and client are in a room with a variety of toys or leisure activities present. The therapist provides social praise and brief physical contact contingent on the client’s appropriate behavior at least once every 30 s. Evidence regarding the function of that behavior is provided when levels of the challenging behavior are higher in one condition compared to the other conditions.

• For instance, if the level of client’s behavior is consistently (e.g., across 5 sessions or more) greater in the demand condition than that in the other conditions, the function of the challenging behavior would be negative reinforcement.
• See Chapter 6 for additional information about FAn and a description of the conditions.

A FAn compares the effects of various conditions using single participant experimental research designs. Commonly used research designs when conducting FAn include multielement and ABAB designs as defined below. The duration of presentation of each condition is typically at least 5 min with a brief (e.g., 5-min) break between conditions if several are presented on one day.

1. When implementing an ABAB Research Design, or a reversal-replication research design, the first step involves measuring the dependent variable (the individual’s challenging behavior) during the baseline phase (A), when no treatment is applied (Martin & Pear, 2011).
2. Once stability of the behavior has been achieved, the treatment or the independent variable (B) is applied and its effect on behavior is observed.

Lastly, these two phases are repeated or replicated. A convincing demonstration of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable is provided if the behavior changes only when treatment is present and not when it is absent. In other variations of this design different treatment conditions can be compared as opposed to including a baseline comparison.

In the graphed data presented in Figure 2 below, the use of an ABAB research design in a FAn to test the effects of easy versus difficult school work on the off-task behavior of a child in the classroom is illustrated. The levels of off-task behavior are greater when difficult school work is presented compared to when easy school work is presented.

Intervention can be designed to provide the child with greater assistance or teach the child to ask for assistance when difficult school work is given. Figure 2. An example of an ABAB research design to test the effects of easy versus difficult school work on the off-task behavior with one child. With a multielement research design two or more conditions or treatments (i.e., independent variable) are alternated rapidly (e.g., treatments A and B are conducted in one day or during the same hour).

1. This design is also known as alternating treatment or simultaneous treatment research design (Martin & Pear, 2011).
2. The conditions are alternated across days (e.g., Day 1: attention, demands, alone, play; Day 2: demands, alone, play, attention, etc.) to reduce the confounding effects of order.
3. Like an ABAB research design, the purpose of the multielement research design is to determine which of several conditions or treatments produce a change in the behavior of interest.

The difference in levels of the challenging behavior between conditions is evaluated to determine which condition affects the behavior most. In the following graphical presentation of FAn seen in Figure 3, the frequency of aggressive behavior is highest in the attention condition compared to the other conditions providing experimental evidence that attention positive reinforcement is maintaining the individual’s aggressive behavior. Figure 3. An example of a multielement research design to determine the effects of attention, demands, play, and tangible conditions on an individual’s frequency of aggressive behavior. The following is an example of the steps involved in conducting an example of a functional analysis procedure using a multielement research design:

• Define the problem behavior.
• In a controlled setting, present 10 min where the attention condition is in effect and instances of the problem behavior are recorded.
• 5 min break.
• Present 10 min of the demand condition
• 5 min break
• Present 10 min play condition
• 5 min break
• Present 10 min of alone condition
• On day 2, repeat above with randomized order of conditions.
• Repeat for 3 more days or more depending on the stability of the data

At least five data points are collected for each condition so that trends, levels of the problem behavior, and non-overlapping data points across conditions can be compared. Graphed data are examined to identify differential levels of the individual’s behavior across conditions.

The data patterns are analyzed by examining stability, trends, overlapping data points, and magnitude of effect observed for the test conditions compared to the control (play/recreation) condition (Martin & Pear, 2011). If variability in the data pattern and/or overlapping data patterns are observed, then additional sessions may need to be conducted until stability and differentiation of the levels of behavior in each condition is reached to allow an interpretation of the results (see Bourret & Pietras, 2013 for more).

Like the other FA methods, there can be advantages and disadvantages to using a functional analysis approach. The major advantage of FAn is that it provides the most accurate information about the function of the individual’s behavior (Floyd, Phaneuf, & Wilcynski, 2005; Iwata et al., 2013).

FAn is the only method that yields a “cause and effect” interpretation of the findings. Since this approach uses an experimental method that involves manipulating conditions (attention, alone, demand, or demand conditions) while controlling or holding constant other potentially confounding factors (play condition), the results from a FAn can be used to identify the specific factors maintaining the problem behavior.

In a comparison of indirect, observational, and FAn methods to identify the function of the challenging behavior of seven children with autism, Tarbox et al. (2009) found that indirect and FAn methods produced more conclusive findings for all seven children than an observational method did.

In contrast, Alter, Conroy, Mancil, and Haydon (2008) found one-to-one correspondence between FA observational methods and FAn and less correspondence with indirect FAn methods when identifying the function of challenging behavior with four young males. Additionally, in Taylor and Romanczyk’s (1994) study, the functions of students’ challenging behavior based on observations of teacher’s interaction with their students in the classroom predicted experimentally verified functions of those behaviors.

There are notable limitations to using a FAn. When the problem is multiply determined or low rates of occurrence of the challenging behavior exist, then interpretation of the results of a functional analysis may be difficult. Another disadvantage is that the function of the challenging behavior may not always be readily identified using the standard functional analysis conditions (i.e., attention, tangible, demand, control).

In which case, tailoring the conditions used in a functional analysis to the individual’s circumstances may be necessary. Hapopian et al. (2013) describe how the maintaining variables for over 90% of 176 inpatient cases of individuals with intellectual disability and severe challenging behaviors were identified as a result of conducting a series of more individually-tailored or idiosyncratic FAn.

Researchers have attempted to address the difficulties with conducting FAn, such as the ethical issues when targeting harmful behaviors (Hanley, 2012). As one approach, procedures may be modified to reduce the threat of harm to the individual due to provocation of the challenging behavior during the assessment conditions.

For instance, conditions may be a single trial (rather than 5-min sessions) and embedded in naturally-occurring ongoing activities in the individual’s environment (Bloom et al., 2011; Bloom, Lambert, Dayton, & Samaha, 2013). Other approaches entail measuring precursor behaviors instead of the actual challenging behavior (Fritz et al., 2013) or latency to engage in the challenging behavior (Neidert et al., 2013).

A summary of the different types of FA and their advantages and disadvantages can be seen in the Table 8 below.

Table 8: A summary of the different types of FA and their advantages and disadvantages

 Types of FA Description Advantages Disadvantages Indirect Interviews, rating scales, surveys A lot of information, quick Bias Memory Not causal information Not as accurate as FAn Observational ABC observations; Time charts Possible causes identified; observing behavior may generate ideas about functions of behavior Correlational information Not as accurate as FAn May miss important variables Low rate behaviors may be difficult to observe Functional Analysis (FAn) Experimentally testing relevant conditions (play, demands, attention, tangible, alone) Clear cause of behavior may be identified Can be unethical to conduct if the behavior is severe and harm may occur May not discover cause if multiple variables exist Must be extended across days if low frequency behaviors Multiple treatment interference or carry over effects with multielement designs The data may be incorrectly interpreted May neglect other relevant variables (physiological, idiosyncratic variables)

Families play an essential role in providing necessary information for early detection and diagnosis, assessment, and are often involved in implementing interventions (Friend & Cook, 2007). Early detection followed by intervention provides the best chance of long-term beneficial outcomes for children with challenging behaviors (Shapiro & Batshaw, 2013).

Understanding the family and their culture is necessary when assessing an individual’s challenging behavior. Cultural differences may involve any combination of age, race/ethnicity, social class, sex, language, religion, sexual orientation, ableness (special needs), regionality, and nationality. For instance, a family may come from cultural contexts with very different viewpoints about education and appropriate child behaviors and this may be involved with the occurrence of the individual’s challenging behaviors.

The more different the cultural background of the family, the more likely that the individuals involved will face cultural conflicts resulting from those differences (Brown, 2010). This is especially true when sensitive topics or cultural incidents occur.

• Understanding the family and the cultural context of the family is critical to a comprehensive assessment and treatment.
• Professionals must ensure that families are part of the process and strive to build a positive, strong partnership with the family.
• A number of ethical issues should be considered before undertaking an FA.

Ethical principles or procedures refer to rules that professions or organizations have specified to ensure survival of the culture (Skinner, 1953). Abiding by ethical considerations protects the client and others and can contribute to high quality care for the person.

• The overarching ethical considerations are: do no harm, right to privacy, and informed consent,
• Several federal laws mandate assessment, evaluation, and interventions with persons with disabilities, including Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, the Buckley Amendment of Families Equal Right to Privacy Act (FERPA) and other state and local policies.

Professionals should be well-versed about these laws and policies and act accordingly. Other ethical factors specific to the FA process include: informed consent from the individual and family to perform FA and determine acceptability of treatment procedures, competence of the professional, adequate and appropriate behavior measures of baseline, treatment, and post-treatment to allow objective and fair evaluation of treatment effectiveness, the choice of a least restrictive alternative or intervention path, and the right to effective treatment based on research based intervention practices.

Table 9: Ethical guidelines, principles, and procedures by organizations or associations

### What are functional characteristics?

Box 1. Key definitions in the functional trait approach – Functional traits are morphological, biochemical, physiological, structural, phenological, or behavioral characteristics that are expressed in phenotypes of individual organisms and are considered relevant to the response of such organisms to the environment and/or their effects on ecosystem properties (Violle et al.2007 ).

1. This crucial position of functional traits at the crossroads between responses to the environment and ecosystem properties explains the increasing attention given to them by both evolutionary biologists and functional ecologists.
2. This duality is reflected in the literature by distinguishing between effect and response traits (Díaz and Cabido 2001 ; Lavorel and Garnier 2002 ; Naeem and Wright 2003 ; Suding et al.2008 ).

Effect traits of a species underlie its impacts on ecosystem properties and the services or disservices that human societies derive from them (Aerts and Chapin 2000 ; Grime 2001 ; Lavorel and Garnier 2002 ), whether or not such traits represent an adaptive advantage to the individual itself.

Examples of effect traits include water retention capacity in bryophytes (regulating ecosystem hydrology), leaf nitrogen content in vascular plants (accelerating nutrient cycling rate), and burrowing behavior (altering soil structure) or gut digestive features (influencing nutrient turnover) in animals (more examples, with references, are given in Table S1 A).

Response traits influence the abilities of species to colonize or thrive in a habitat and to persist in the face of environmental changes. Plant examples include seed size (related to recruitment capacity under different disturbance regimes), bark thickness (conferring fire tolerance), and leaf size (leading to different heat balances).

Animal examples are bill shape and size (allowing the capture of food items of different kind and size) in birds, desiccation tolerance in soil arthropods, and tongue length (giving access to nectar contained in flowers of different size and shape) in pollinators (see Table S1 B for more examples and references).

The same trait may in some cases act as both response and effect traits (Suding et al.2008 ): for instance, leaf nitrogen content in plants and body size in animals both underlie multiple responses to the environment and effects on ecosystem properties ( Table S1 A, B).

1. Traits can be the joint expression of underlying biophysical and biochemical properties and processes of an organism; whether a trait is a combination of such properties or itself one of such properties is a question of judgment and objective of the study.
2. For example, leaf toughness can be seen as a trait that depends on anatomical characteristics such as venation architecture and density and chemical characteristics such as lignin concentration, or lignin concentration itself can be considered a trait.

In this article, we take a broad view of traits without specification of whether or not they can be deconstructed into simpler characteristics. The relevance of functional traits in species’ response to the environment or species’ effect on ecosystems is usually established empirically by observation or manipulation of the ecosystem under study or by extrapolation from other studies.

## What are the 4 types of relationships in psychology?

Basic Types of Relationships – Relationships typically fall into one of several different categories (although these can sometimes overlap):

Family relationships Friendships Acquaintances Romantic relationships Sexual relationships Work relationships Situational relationships (sometimes called ” situationships “)

These different forms of relationships can vary greatly in terms of closeness, and there are also different subtypes of relationships within each of these basic types. Some of the different kinds of relationships that you might experience at some point in your life include the following.

### What is an example of functional in psychology?

Functionalism in sociology sees the parts of society as components of a cohesive whole. Each part performs a useful function. For example, the parents in a family provides for the children, who will in turn care for the parents when they become elderly.

1. Similarly, the person who builds the road will build roads that the farmer drives on to get his produce to market, which the road builder will then buy to eat.
2. We all have a role to play in the proper functioning of society.
3. All the institutions, structures, and people that make up a society perform important roles.

They are interdependent on each other, Functionalists think of parts of society as organs of a body (Herbert Spencer). Each part of society performs a function that makes it work as a whole, just as a human body needs all the organs to perform their parts to make the body work (Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons).

### What is the difference between dysfunctional and functional relationship?

Conflict is a natural and necessary part of life. It can arise in any relationship, whether it be with a spouse, co-worker, friend, or family member. The way that conflict is handled can make or break the relationship. Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional.

#### What are the 4 types of relationships?

This section focuses on four types of relationships: Family relationships, Friendships, Acquaintanceships and Romantic relationships.