What Is Converging Evidence In Psychology?
- Sabrina Sarro
The convergence of evidence refers to the way that different and independent sources all support one conclusion over another. The convergence of evidence establishes what explanations are accepted and what explanations face challenges or skepticism in an argument.
- 1 What is the meaning of converging evidence?
- 1.1 What is the paradox of converging evidence?
- 1.2 What are some examples of converging?
- 1.3 What are the 3 types of convergence explain?
- 1.4 What are the three types of converging?
- 1.5 What is convergence theory theory?
- 2 What is convergent theory of truth?
- 3 Which is better convergence or divergence?
- 4 What is the best example of convergence?
- 5 How do you use converging evidence in a sentence?
- 6 What is converging in deep learning?
What is the meaning of converging evidence?
Converging evidence refers to the concept that independent scientific findings acquired with different methodological techniques can come together, or converge, to create strong and well-supported conclusions. The principle of converging evidence is also known as consilience.
What are the different types of converging evidence?
The strongest epistemological approach that we can take to advance the mind sciences is to maximize evidential convergence by incorporating three types of evidence: first-person (subjective), second-person (inter-subjective), and third-person (objective).
What is the paradox of converging evidence?
Basics – For the rest of the paper, we consider the common setting in which treatment and control groups are being compared. In this section, we refer to the hypothetical constructs themselves, not to measurements. We will later expand our discussion to tackle the difficulties of compounding hypothetical constructs with measurement error.
- According to the theory at hand, the treatment i produces some feature F i in the comparison between treatment group i and its control.
- We treat each feature as binary: A person either does or does not have it.
- A person has the feature F i, say, if she genuinely succumbed to the Asian Disease framing effect, if she genuinely improved her memory, if she genuinely changed attitude, if she genuinely switched attention, if her cortisol level was genuinely higher.
In particular, we cover the standard approach commonly found in psychology: A scholar derives several distinct predictions and evaluates each of these in a separate experiment or in a separate treatment manipulation. For now, when considering a change or difference in a quantitative variable, within person, we do not distinguish between a large and small difference, we only consider whether it occurs or not.
What proportion of the population is adequately described by a given psychological theory? In other words, how many people satisfy all the predictions made by the theory? Let p i denote the proportion of the population that satisfies feature F i, say, genuinely enhanced memory, or, say, a genuinely different attitude, etc., when undergoing treatment i,
If we derive k many different predictions from a theory, those members of the population who are accurately described by the theory must, at the very least, satisfy all of the features F 1, F 2,, F k, The proportion of the population that satisfies all of the features is, in turn, at best, min : If 55% of the population has feature F 1 and 60% of all people have feature F 2 then, at best, 55% have both features.
What can we say about the scope of the theory? In other words, how many people, at least, in the population, satisfy all of the features F 1, F 2,, F k ? If p 1 =,55 and p 2 =,6, then the worst case scenario is that those 45% of the population who fail to satisfy feature F 1 are all included among those 60% of the population who satisfy feature F 2, in which case only 15% of the population would satisfy both features.
In this worst case scenario, 85% of the population are exceptions to the theory. In general, for k many features, the proportion of people who satisfy all k features is bounded from below by max, 0 } = max, (1) In the above example when k = 2, p 1 =,55 and p 2 =,6, this becomes max = max =,15.
In this example, at worst 15% and at best 55% of the population satisfy both feature F 1 and feature F 2, Between 15% and 55% of the population satisfy both predictions of the theory. So, unless a theory only predicts these two features and no others, the scope of the theory is at best between 15% and 55% of the population.
If we derive another, third, prediction from the theory and 75% of the population satisfies the predicted feature, that is, if p 3 =,75, then max = max = 0. With these three predictions and these proportions of the population who satisfy each, we conclude that, at best 55% of the population satisfy all three features, and, at worst, nobody does.
The full theory, which is the conjunction of all its predictions not necessarily just these three, is descriptive of 55% of the population, at best. At worst, it is descriptive of nobody, This is the ‘paradox’ of converging evidence: With every additional prediction, unless that prediction holds true for everybody, the support of the theory erodes rather than builds.
In the worst case scenario, an extra prediction is descriptive only of people who violate at least one of the other predictions. Keep in mind that external validity requires a theory’s predictions to hold in numerous additional situations beyond those studied in the lab.
- If we consider the prediction that is descriptive of the fewest people and if we consider who it accurately describes, then in the best case scenario, those same people happen to also satisfy all the other features we have predicted from the theory.
- More specifically, a theory may be valid for a target population that may or may not include all people.
If studying only members of the target population, then the predictions from this theory hold for everybody, hence there is no ‘paradox’ of converging evidence. We now expand beyond hypothetical constructs to include measurement error. We consider the implications of these insights for the example of Cohen’s d, a very commonly used effect size in the behavioral sciences.
What is the importance of point of convergence?
1.4 Metrics for Plan Recognition – There are no agreed-on benchmarks and metrics for reporting results in the plan and goal recognition community. This, in addition to the lack of common datasets, makes it difficult if not impossible to compare performance across recognizers.
- This section discusses plan recognition metrics in general and then proposes several, which we use in our evaluations described later in the chapter.
- To choose metrics, we need to look at the desiderata for plan recognition systems in general.
- We noted several of these in the introduction: speed, precision and recall, early prediction, and partial prediction.
While speed and precision and recall are quite obvious, the latter two (early and partial prediction) are often overlooked in the literature. In reporting results for goal schema recognition, we use the following metrics: Precision: the number of correct predictions divided by the total number of predictions made ( # correct / # predictions ).
Recall: the number of correct predictions divided by the total number of actions observed ( # correct / # observations ). Convergence: whether or not the final prediction was correct (i.e., whether the recognizer finished the session with the correct answer). Convergence point : If the recognizer converged, at which point in the input it started giving only the correct answer.
This is reported as a quotient of the action number (i.e., after observing x actions) over the total number of actions for that case.8 This is similar to Lesh’s measurement of work saved, which measures how many user actions are saved by the system recognizing the goal early.9 Precision and recall are used to measure overall accuracy of the recognizer, both in predicting and deciding when to predict.
It is important to remember that here the predictions are “online” (i.e., that they occur after each observed action), and not post hoc after all observations have been seen. Convergence and convergence point are an attempt to measure early prediction—that is, how far into the plan session does the recognizer zero in on the correct prediction.
We use the term convergence here, as it is often the case that the recognizer is unsure at the start of a session, but that at some point it has seen enough evidence to converge on a particular prediction, which it then begins predicting, and predicts from that point on—compare to,
What is converging vs diverging evidence?
These can be defined as: Convergent Validity – When two similar questions reveal the same result. Divergent Validity – When two opposite questions reveal opposite results.
What are some examples of converging?
The two roads converge in the center of town. Students converged in the parking lot to say goodbye after graduation. Economic forces converged to bring the country out of a recession. Many companies are combining rapidly converging communication technology into one device that can act as a phone, take photographs, and send e-mail. Richard Villegas, Rolling Stone, 28 Feb.2023 But differences and personalities are what make a city; ideas and aesthetics clash and converge, — Rachel Tashjian, Harper’s BAZAAR, 27 Feb.2023 This mini climate summit takes place a few days before our interview, inside a soundstage in another industrial Eastside pocket of the city, where the Los Angeles River, the 5 freeway, and the Amtrak-Metrolink train tracks almost converge, — Jen Wang, Vogue, 4 Jan.2023 And as all these stories start to converge, Walter gets wrapped up into it too. — Nojan Aminosharei, Harper’s BAZAAR, 18 Apr.2023 While California’s historic snowpack is a boon for drought conditions, the unprecedented amount of water pouring down from the Sierra raises concerns for flooding downstream, where flows converge, — Jack Lee, San Francisco Chronicle, 5 Apr.2023 The only realms where races converge, Joseph said, are sports and music. — Lawrence Wright, The New Yorker, 6 Feb.2023 At the end of the line at Kyle of Lochalsh, catch a quick cab ride to tour the spectacular 13th-century Eilean Donnan castle, one of Scotland’s most widely recognizable castles that sits on a small island where three sea lochs converge, — Marisel Salazar, Condé Nast Traveler, 23 Dec.2022 These movements converge, finally, during Maarva’s funeral, which begins early thanks to some premature anvil-clanging from the town bell-ringer. — Lauren Puckett-pope, ELLE, 23 Nov.2022 See More These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word ‘converge.’ Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.
What are the 3 types of convergence explain?
4.6 Convergent Plate Boundaries Modified from “Physical Geology” by Steven Earle*, where two plates are moving toward each other, are of three types, depending on the type of crust present on either side of the boundary — or, The types are ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent.
At an ocean-ocean convergent boundary, one of the plates (oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle) is pushed, or, under the other (Figure 4.6.1). Often it is the older and colder plate that is denser and subducts beneath the younger and warmer plate. There is commonly an ocean trench along the boundary as the crust bends downwards.
The subducted descends into the hot mantle at a relatively shallow angle close to the subduction zone, but at steeper angles farther down (up to about 45°). The significant volume of water within the subducting material is released as the subducting crust is heated.
It mixes with the overlying mantle, and the addition of water to the hot mantle lowers the crust’s melting point and leads to the formation of magma (flux melting). The magma, which is lighter than the surrounding mantle material, rises through the mantle and the overlying oceanic crust to the ocean floor where it creates a chain of volcanic islands known as an,
A mature island arc develops into a chain of relatively large islands (such as Japan or Indonesia) as more and more volcanic material is extruded and sedimentary rocks accumulate around the islands. Earthquakes occur relatively deep below the seafloor, where the subducting crust moves against the overriding crust.
Figure 4.6.1 A trench and volcanic island formed from an ocean-ocean convergent zone (Steven Earle, “Physical Geology”). Examples of ocean-ocean convergent zones are subduction of the Pacific Plate south of Alaska (creating the Aleutian Islands) and under the Philippine Plate, where it creates the Marianas Trench, the deepest part of the ocean.
At an ocean-continent convergent boundary, the denser oceanic plate is pushed under the less dense continental plate in the same manner as at an ocean-ocean boundary. Sediment that has accumulated on the seafloor is thrust up into an accretionary wedge, and compression leads to thrusting within the continental plate (Figure 4.6.2).
- The magma produced adjacent to the subduction zone rises to the base of the continental crust and leads to partial melting of the crustal rock.
- The resulting magma ascends through the crust, producing a mountain chain with many volcanoes.
- As with an ocean-ocean boundary, the subducting crust can produce a deep trench running parallel to the coastline.
Figure 4.6.2 A trench and volcanic mountains formed from an ocean-continent convergent zone (Steven Earle, “Physical Geology”). Examples of ocean-continent convergent boundaries are subduction of the Nazca Plate under South America (which has created the Andes Mountains and the Peru Trench) and subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under North America (creating the Cascade Range).
- A continent-continent collision occurs when a continent or large island that has been moved along with subducting oceanic crust collides with another continent (Figure 4.6.3).
- The colliding continental material will not be subducted because it is too light (i.e., because it is composed largely of light continental rocks), but the root of the oceanic plate will eventually break off and sink into the mantle.
There is tremendous deformation of the pre-existing continental rocks, forcing the material upwards and creating mountains. Figure 4.6.3 Mountains formed from a continent-continent convergent zone (Steven Earle, “Physical Geology”). Examples of continent-continent convergent boundaries are the collision of the India Plate with the Eurasian Plate, creating the Himalaya Mountains, and the collision of the African Plate with the Eurasian Plate, creating the series of ranges extending from the Alps in Europe to the Zagros Mountains in Iran.
What are the three types of converging?
Convergent boundaries. Plates may converge directly or at an angle. Three types of convergent boundaries are recognized: continent‐continent, ocean‐continent, and ocean‐ocean. Continent‐continent convergence results when two continents collide. The continents were separated at one time by oceanic crust that was progressively subducted under one of the continents.
- The continent overlying the subduction zone will develop a magmatic arc until the ocean floor becomes so narrow that the continents collide.
- Because the continents are less dense than the oceanic crust, they will not be pulled down the subduction zone.
- One continent may override the other for a short distance, but the two continents eventually become welded together along a geologically complex suture zone that represents the original line of collision.
The crust is thickened along the suture zone, resulting in isostatic uplift, mountain‐building, and thrust faulting. Ocean‐continent convergence occurs when oceanic crust is subducted under continental crust. This forms an active continental margin between the subduction zone and the edge of the continent.
The leading edge of the continental plate is usually studded with steep andesitic mountain ranges. Earthquakes occur in the Benioff zones that dip underneath the continental edge. Magmatic arc is a general term for belts of andesitic island arcs and inland andesitic mountain ranges that develop along continental edges.
These mountain ranges (also called volcanic arcs) are underlain by crust that has been thickened by intrusive batholiths that were generated by partial melting along the underlying subduction zone. The Sierra Nevada in California and Nevada is a volcanic arc.
Volcanic arcs result from isostatic processes, compressional forces along the leading edge of the continent, and thrust faults that move slices of mountain‐belt rocks inward over the continental interior, creating backarc thrust belts. The additional weight of these rocks downwarps the inland area, forming a foreland basin.
The foreland basin fills with eroded material from the mountain ranges or occasionally with marine sediments if it becomes submerged. Ocean‐ocean convergence occurs when two plates carrying ocean crust meet. One edge of ocean crust is subducted beneath the other at an ocean trench.
- The ocean trench curves outward toward the subducting plate over the subduction zone.
- Data from earthquakes along the subducting plate show that the angle of subduction increases with depth.
- Subduction probably occurs to a depth of at least 670 kilometers (400 miles), at which point the plate probably becomes plastic.
Andesitic volcanism often forms a curved chain of islands, or island arc, that develops between the oceanic trench and the continental landmass. Modern‐day examples of island arcs are the Philippines and the Alaska Peninsula. Geologists think that at a depth of about 100 kilometers (60 miles) the asthenosphere just above the subduction zone partially melts.
- This mafic magma may then assimilate silicious rocks as it moves up through the overlying plate, forming a final andesitic composition that vents to form the island arc.
- The distance the island arc forms from the oceanic trench is dependent on the steepness of the subduction zone—the steeper the angle of subduction, the more quickly the subducted material reaches the magmaforming depth of 100 kilometers, and the closer the arc will be to the oceanic trench.
The trench becomes filled with folded marine sediments that slide off the descending plate and pile up against the wall of the trench. This accumulation is called the accretionary wedge or subduction complex. The accretionary wedge is continuously pushed up to form a ridge along the surface of the trench over the subducted crust.
The forearc basin is the relatively undisturbed expanse of ocean floor between the accretionary wedge and island arc; the area on the continental side of the arc is called the backarc. The backarc basin, the basin that occurs between the island arc and the continental mass, is occasionally split by new extensional forces into two parts that migrate in different directions ( backarc rifting ).
In other words, a “mini” spreading center develops as an equilibrium response to changes in the way the plate is being subducted. This backarc spreading can push the island arc away from the continent toward the subduction zone. If it develops along the continental edge, it can also split off a strip of the continent and push it seaward toward the subduction zone—Japan is a modern‐day example.
The rifting may be caused by a mantle plume that has come near to the surface and is spreading out, creating convection currents that stretch the crust to the point of breakage. The locations of oceanic trenches shift gradually with time, a phenomenon thought to be caused by the force of the leading edge of the overlying plate, which pushes the trench back over the subducting plate.
This is because the overlying plate has a forward tectonic force and a gravitational force that bears down on the subducting plate. Some geologists believe the subducting material sinks at an angle that is steeper than that of the subduction zone, which would tend to pull the subducting plate away from the overlying plate, allowing the overlying plate to again move forward and push the oceanic trench back over the subducting plate.
Divergent boundaries. A divergent plate boundary is formed where tensional tectonic forces result in the crustal rocks being stretched and finally split apart, or rifted. The central block drops to form a graben, and basaltic volcanism is abundant along the rift’s faults. The rise of hot mantle material beneath the rift zone pushes the rift valley farther apart (Figure 1).
Today’s active divergent boundaries are midoceanic ridges (sea floor spreading centers). Divergent boundaries can also develop on land, as did those that broke up Pangaea about 200 million years ago. Continental rifting can end before the crustal mass has been fully separated. Figure 1 Divergent Plate Development Geologists have debated for years whether uplift causes rifting or whether rifting causes uplift. Some scientists feel that rifting thins the crust, reducing the amount of pressure it can exert; the reduced pressure allows deeper, more pressurized rocks to ascend, causing uplift (similar to unloading and dome structures).
- Most geologists agree that uplift occurred after the rifting that resulted in the Red Sea in the Middle East.
- Eventually the crust is totally split by continued divergence along the rift, and the two parts are separated by a new sea that floods the rift valley.
- New, basaltic oceanic crust continues to build up along the rift, causing high heat flows and shallow earthquakes.
The Red Sea is at this stage of divergent separation. Rivers do not discharge into the new ocean because the continental edges have been uplifted by the rising mantle material and slope away from the ocean. As divergence continues, the sea widens and the midoceanic ridge continues to grow.
Eventually the continental edges subside as the underlying rocks cool and are further lowered by erosion. Rivers begin to flow into the sea forming deltas, and marine sedimentation begins to form the continental margin, shelf, and rise. Transform boundaries. A transform boundary is a fault or a series of parallel faults (fault zone) along which plates slide past each other via strike‐slip movements.
As previously discussed, transform faults connect offset midoceanic ridges (including the rift valleys). The motion between the two ridge segments is in opposite directions; beyond the transform fault, crustal movement is strike‐slip in the same direction.
Thus, the transform fault “transforms” into a fault that has different motions along the same fault plane. Transform faults can connect diverging and converging boundaries or two converging boundaries (such as two oceanic trenches). Transform faults are thought to form because the original line of divergence is slightly curved.
As an adjustment to mechanical constraints, the tectonic forces break the curved or irregular plate boundary into a series of pieces. The segments are separated by transform faults that are parallel to the spreading direction, allowing the ridge crest to be perpendicular to the spreading direction, which is the easiest way for two plates to diverge.
What are the two types of convergence?
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Convergent boundaries, also called destructive boundaries, are places where two or more plates move toward each other. Convergent boundary movement is divided into two types, subduction and collision, depending on the density of the involved plates. Continental lithosphere is of lower density and thus more buoyant than the underlying asthenosphere. Oceanic lithosphere is denser than continental lithosphere, and, when old and cold, may even be denser than asthenosphere. Figure \(\PageIndex \): Geologic provinces of Earth. Orogenies are labeled light blue. When plates of different densities converge, the higher density plate is pushed beneath the more buoyant plate in a process called subduction. When continental plates converge without subduction occurring, this process is called collision.
What is convergence theory theory?
Convergence theory is the idea that as rich countries got richer, they developed similar economic, political, and social structures and to some extent common values and beliefs.
What is convergent theory of truth?
Peirce’s convergence theory of truth is an intuitive and reasonable account of truth. In its most general sense, it links truth to the results of inquiry and, in typical pragmatic fashion, defines truth in terms of what it does, rather than what it is.
What is convergence theory in philosophy?
Convergence is movement toward one point, toward another communicator, toward a common interest, and toward greater uniformity, never quite reaching that point. It is assumed, for example, that no two people can ever reach the same meaning for information, only a greater degree of similarity.
What does convergence mean in research?
By definition, convergence integrates multiple areas of science via the cooperative work of researchers from different scientific backgrounds until theories, knowledge, methods, challenges, and even vocabulary words are intermingled.
What is an example of convergent evidence?
Evaluation/application – Convergent validity can be estimated using correlation coefficients. A successful evaluation of convergent validity shows that a test of a concept is highly correlated with other tests designed to measure theoretically similar concepts.
- For instance, to show the convergent validity of a test of mathematics skills, the scores on the test can be correlated with scores on other tests that are also designed to measure basic mathematics ability.
- High correlations between the test scores would be evidence of convergent validity.
- Convergent evidence is best interpreted relative to discriminant evidence.
That is, patterns of intercorrelations between two dissimilar measures should be low while correlations with similar measures should be substantially greater. This evidence can be organized as a, For example, in order to test the convergent validity of a measure of, a researcher may want to show that measures of similar constructs, such as self-worth, confidence, social skills, and self-appraisal are also related to self-esteem, whereas non-overlapping factors, such as intelligence, should not relate.
Which is better convergence or divergence?
Key Takeaways –
Divergence occurs when the price of an asset and an indicator move away from each other.Convergence happens when the price of an asset and an indicator move toward each other.Divergence can be either positive or negative. Convergence occurs because an efficient market won’t allow something to trade for two prices at the same timeTechnical traders are more interested in divergence as a signal to trade while the absence of convergence is an opportunity for arbitrage.
What is diverging evidence psychology?
Divergent Validity In psychological testing, Divergent Validity is used to determine if a test is too similar to another test. If a test is found to correlate too strongly (or be too similar) with another test then it suggests that the tests are measuring the same thing and are too alike to be considered different.
What is an example of convergence in real life psychology?
Convergence vs. Linear Perspective I choose to look at the concept of perceptual organization. Specifically, the idea of convergence perspective and linear perspective. Depth perception gives us the ability to judge distances and there are two types of cues involved.
One type is binocular cues which uses both eyes to judge distances and perspectives. Convergence cues is categorized as a binocular cue since it involves the use of both eyes. Another cue used in depth perception is monocular cues which uses one eye. Linear perspective is categorized under monocular cues.
These two types of cues have the potential to be easily confused as they both involve focusing on a point of convergence. However, these two cues are vastly different. As mentioned above convergence is a binocular cue. When you use the convergence depth cue both of your eyes move together to focus on an object that is in close proximity.
The further the distance of the object the farther apart your eyes are. According to the Psychology textbook by Professor Wede convergence cues are used on objects that are within 50 feet of us. An example of convergence that you can do is to try to look at the tip of your nose. You will be able to feel both of your eyes focusing on your nose.
If you want to be able to experience the gradual process of your eyes converging place one finger at an arms width and focus your eyes on it as you slowly bring it closer to your nose and you should be able to notice your eyes slowly converging. This is an example of a convergence cue.
Photo by Bermann, J. Linear perspective is the process in which parallel lines will converge at a certain distance. Much like convergence linear perspective also relies on a point where objects merge or meet. However, linear perspective is monocular rather than binocular. There are three main parts to this type of cue and those are the vanishing point, which is where the lines converge, creating depth (Blumberg).
The horizon line where the vanish point lies and orthogonal’s also known as parallel lines (Blumberg). Linear perspective is often used in artwork as it allows for depth to be created on flat surfaces. The closer the parallel lines are to each other, or the more they converge the more distance the audience will perceive.
- This is an example of a linear perspective cue.
- Photo by Amey, K.
- I took a lot of art courses when I was in high school.
- There was always at least on assignment every year where I would have to draw a city scape or have some point on the horizon converge in order to create depth.
- At that point it was not explained why this helped to create depth.
My teachers would merely explain how to do it and then leave us to do it by ourselves. I had never stopped to consider, how this trick worked to convince my mind that there was distance, or if one or both my eyes were engaged. Now however, I know from Psych 100 that linear perspective only uses one eye even though both eyes are looking at the picture or point.
If you were to close one eye you would still perceive depth while with convergence the object would no longer be centered. References Amey, K. (2015).17 miles, 93 bends and breathtaking views of the Douro Valley: The world’s best road is in Portugal’s wine region. The Daily Mail. Retrieved from www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-3052472/The-world-s-best-road-voted-Portugal-s-wine-region.html Bermann, J.
(1960). Surprise Landing, Retrieved from https://norman.hrc.utexas.edu/NYJAdc/ItemDetails.cfm?id=601%23navtop Blumberg, N. (2016) Linear Perspective. In Encyclopaedia Britannica online. Retrieved from www.britannica.com/art/linear-perspective : Convergence vs.
What is the best example of convergence?
The most popular examples of Media Convergence are: Smartphones (converging camera, music, the internet, books, and all other media together) Online Radio (converging radio with the Internet) E-books (converging paperbacks with the digital technology)
What are the 5 types of convergence?
iPhone media convergence, phenomenon involving the interconnection of information and communications technologies, computer networks, and media content. It brings together the “three C’s”—computing, communication, and content—and is a direct consequence of the digitization of media content and the popularization of the Internet,
Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. It erodes long-established media industry and content “silos” and increasingly uncouples content from particular devices, which in turn presents major challenges for public policy and regulation.
The five major elements of media convergence—the technological, the industrial, the social, the textual, and the political—are discussed below.
How do you use converging evidence in a sentence?
Examples of converging evidence – These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. Converging evidence for left hemisphere language lateralization in bilinguals.
- Converging evidence of this kind would provide most valuable to support for assumption of a unitary capacity limited attentional focus.
- Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity.
- Converging evidence for a syntactic-theoretical constraint in bilingual speech.
- Converging evidence for underlying phonological representations in a child who misarticulates.
Despite the converging evidence for cognitive main effects, the underlying causal mechanisms of these effects have been relatively neglected. Converging evidence for brain stem injury in autism. Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that at least one form of schizophrenia may have its origins in prenatal disturbances which adversely affect normal brain development.
Converging evidence : bringing together o experimental and corpus data on the association of verbs and constructions. Converging evidence for phonological and surface subtypes of reading disability. Converging evidence for the concept of orthographic processing. Converging evidence for underlying phonological representation in a child who misarticulates.
Converging evidence points to the importance of certain qualitative dimensions of phonological representations for the normal development of phonological awareness and reading. Converging evidence for psychological and surface subtypes of reading disability.
- These findings provide converging evidence for the conclusion that language acquisition becomes increasingly more driven by the learner’s language skills in middle childhood.
- Studies of brain activation bring converging evidence on reading processes and provide neuroanatomical correlates of reading problems.
Language differences in the trajectories of processing speed provide converging evidence as to which learner group acquires case marking faster. Extensive, converging evidence indicates that horizontal cell coupling is under dynamic regulation. In an effort to obtain further converging evidence, additional data were elicited with a preference task combined with grammaticality judgments.
What does converge mean in research?
Learn About Convergence Research Engineers at Brown University have designed a biochip that can measure glucose concentrations in human saliva. In this illustration, glucose molecules ‘dance’ on a sensor surface illuminated by light. The technique takes advantage of a convergence of nanotechnology and surface plasmonics, which explores the interaction of electrons and photons.
- It is driven by a specific and compelling problem, whether that problem arises from deep scientific questions or pressing societal needs.
- It shows deep integration across disciplines. Convergence research intentionally brings together intellectually diverse researchers to develop effective ways of communicating across disciplines. As experts from different disciplines pursue a common research challenge, their knowledge, theories, methods, data and research communities increasingly intermingle.
New frameworks, paradigms or even disciplines can emerge from convergence research, as research communities adopt common frameworks and a new scientific language. In this sense, convergence research is similar to transdisciplinary research, which is seen as the pinnacle of integration across disciplines.
What is converging in deep learning?
Convergence in deep learning – In simple words, we can say that convergence of neural networks is a point of training a model after which changes in the learning rate become lower and the errors produced by the model in training comes to a minimum. We can also say that a deep learning model is in convergence when the loss given by the model reaches its minimum.
The convergence can be of two types either global or local. One thing that is noticeable here is that convergence should happen with a decreasing trend. However, In a variety of modelling procedures, it is very rare to see a model converge very strictly but it is common to see the model converge in a convex manner.
Mathematically we can consider convergence as a study of series and sequence. A model can be considered to be in convergence when the series is a converging series. As given below. Lets say s(n)=lossWn(y^,y) is a converging series. Where,
- Wn = set of weights after nth iteration
- s(n) = nth term of the series.
If we say that the loss = 0 then we can say the series we are calling converging is an infinite series. But loss = 0 is an ideal condition that can not be achieved but after convergence, the learning rate can keep getting smaller. The above image is a representation of the convergence where we can see that the training of the model after the 20th iteration becomes converged and the errors after the 20th iteration are lower, decremental and within a smaller range. By the above, we can say that the convergence in the model is important while training makes us decide whether to proceed with the model or not.
What is called converging?
If parallel rays of light fall on a convex lens they converge when passing through and meet at a point on the other side. That’s why the convex lens is known as a converging lens. If parallel rays of light fall on a concave lens they diverge as they pass through the lens never to meet at a point.