### What Is Fixed Ratio In Psychology?

Definition – Fixed ratio is a schedule of reinforcement. In this schedule, reinforcement is delivered after the completion of a number of responses. The required number of responses remains constant. The schedule is denoted as FR-#, with the number specifying the number of responses that must be produced to attain reinforcement.

• In an FR-3 schedule, 3 responses must be produced in order to obtain reinforcement.
• In an FR-15 schedule, 15 responses must be emitted before reinforcement is delivered.
• This ratio requirement (number of responses to produce reinforcement) is conceptualized as a response unit.
• In other words, it is the response unit (not the last response) that leads to the reinforcer (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007 ; Skinner, 1938 ).

Applications of FR schedules can be found in business and in education. Some tasks are paid on an FR schedule (e.g., piecework). Students might receive a token after the completion of ten spelling words. FR schedules are.

### What is an example of a fixed ratio in psychology?

For Example – An example of a fixed-ratio schedule would be a child being given candy for every 3-10 pages of a book they read. For example, they are given candy after reading 5 pages, then 3 pages, then 7 pages, then 8 pages, etc. The unpredictable reinforcement motivates them to keep reading, even if they are not immediately reinforced after reading one page.

### What is a fixed interval in psychology?

Fixed-interval schedule ( FI schedule ) in conditioning, an arrangement, formerly known as periodic reinforcement, in which the first response that occurs after a set interval has elapsed is reinforced.

## What is fixed ratio variable ratio in psychology?

Learning Objectives

Reinforcement Schedule Description
Fixed ratio Reinforcement is delivered after a predictable number of responses (e.g., after 2, 4, 6, and 8 responses).
Variable ratio Reinforcement is delivered after an unpredictable number of responses (e.g., after 1, 4, 5, and 9 responses).

### What is an example of a fixed ratio interval?

A fixed ratio is when something occurs after a certain number of occurrences, for example, at a restaurant giving the 10th meal free. A fixed interval is when something happens after a specific amount of time. For example, a monthly meeting every first Wednesday.

#### How does fixed ratio affect behavior?

Effectiveness of a Fixed-Ratio Schedule – What impact does this schedule have on response rates? The fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement results in a high, steady response until the reinforcement is delivered. There is a brief response pause after reinforcement, but responding quickly resumes.

1. Typically, the FR schedule leads to very high rates of response that follow a burst-pause-burst pattern.
2. Subjects will respond at a high rate until the reinforcement is delivered, at which point there will be a brief pause.
3. However, responding will resume once again at a high rate.
4. This high rate of response is one of the advantages of a fixed-ratio schedule.

One possible disadvantage is that subjects may quickly become exhausted from such a high response rate. Or, they may become satiated after several reinforcements have been given. Fixed-ratio schedules are often used after a response has been learned, but you want to reinforce it.

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#### What is an example of fixed ratio reinforcement in daily life?

An example of a fixed-ratio schedule would be delivering a food pellet to a rat after it presses a bar five times.

## What is fixed interval vs fixed ratio in psychology?

Glossary – continuous reinforcement: rewarding a behavior every time it occurs fixed interval reinforcement schedule: behavior is rewarded after a set amount of time fixed ratio reinforcement schedule: set number of responses must occur before a behavior is rewarded operant conditioning: form of learning in which the stimulus/experience happens after the behavior is demonstrated variable interval reinforcement schedule: behavior is rewarded after unpredictable amounts of time have passed variable ratio reinforcement schedule: number of responses differ before a behavior is rewarded

### What is an example of a fixed schedule in psychology?

Fixed Interval Schedules in the Real World –

• A weekly paycheck is a good example of a fixed-interval schedule. The employee receives reinforcement every seven days, which may result in a higher response rate as payday approaches.
• Dental exams also take place on a fixed-interval schedule. People who go in for their regular six-month checkup and cleaning often take extra care to clean their teeth right before the exam, yet they may not be as diligent on a day-to-day basis during the six months prior to the exam.

#### What is an example of a fixed ratio in the classroom?

Fixed ratio reinforcement is delivered after a given number of occurrences. Examples of fixed ratio reinforcement are reinforcing a child after every fifth math sheet is completed or after every third time a child exhibits sharing behavior.

### How does fixed ratio reinforcement affect behavior?

Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR) – A fixed ratio schedule delivers reinforcement after a certain number of responses are delivered. Fixed ratio schedules produce high rates of response until a reward is received, which is then followed by a pause in the behavior.

## What is an example of ratio variable in psychology?

Ratio – A ratio variable, has all the properties of an interval variable, and also has a clear definition of 0.0. When the variable equals 0.0, there is none of that variable. Examples of ratio variables include:

enzyme activity, dose amount, reaction rate, flow rate, concentration, pulse, weight, length, temperature in Kelvin (0.0 Kelvin really does mean “no heat”), survival time.

When working with ratio variables, but not interval variables, the ratio of two measurements has a meaningful interpretation. For example, because weight is a ratio variable, a weight of 4 grams is twice as heavy as a weight of 2 grams. However, a temperature of 10 degrees C should not be considered twice as hot as 5 degrees C.

 OK to compute. Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Frequency distribution Yes Yes Yes Yes Median and percentiles No Yes Yes Yes Add or subtract No No Yes Yes Mean, standard deviation, standard error of the mean No No Yes Yes Ratios, coefficient of variation No No No Yes

### What is variable ratio and examples?

A schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered after an average number of responses has occurred. For instance, a teacher may reinforce about every 5th time a child raises their hand in class- sometimes giving attention after 3 hand raises, sometimes 7, etc. ©2023 STUDY NOTES ABA, LLC.

#### What is a variable interval in psychology?

Variable Interval Schedule If you understand variable ratio schedules, this will be easy. If not, this might be a little confusing at first, but hang on and it will become clear. A variable interval schedule (VI) is a type of operant conditioning reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given to a response after specific amount of time has passed (an unpredictable amount of time), but this amount of time is on a changing/variable schedule.

This is almost identical to a Fixed-Interval Schedule but the reinforcements are given on a variable or changing schedule. Although the schedule changes, there is a pattern – the amount of time that must pass changes, but the reinforcement is given after “N”th amount of time passes, where N is the average amount of time that must pass.

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Let’s give an example. You conduct a study in which a rat is put on a VI 10 second schedule (the operant response is pressing a lever). This means that the rat will get reinforced when it waits an average of 10 seconds and then presses the lever. However, because it is an average, the rat may have to wait 30 seconds one trial, then only 2 seconds the next, 30 the next 50 the next, 1 second the next, and so on.just as long as it all averages out to reinforcement being delivered after an average interval of 10 seconds.

1. In addition, sometimes the researcher can make the time interval start all over again if the organism makes an operant response before the proper time has elapsed.
2. So, if the organism makes a response before it is supposed to, the interval starts all over again (if it was supposed to wait 30 seconds on that trial, the 30 seconds starts all over again).

: Variable Interval Schedule

### What is fixed interval data?

Description – A fixed-interval (FI) schedule has two components: (1) it requires the passage of a specified amount of time before reinforcement will be delivered contingent on a response and (2) no responding during the interval is reinforced, only the first response following the end of the interval is reinforced,

1. An FI schedule of reinforcement results in high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but a much slower rate of responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer.
2. This post reinforcement pause and then subsequent acceleration in responding results in a scalloped pattern of responding.B.F.

Skinner’s early research with pigeons identified the scalloped pattern, which was also consistently found in mice, monkeys, and human children, More recent research is skeptical of humans responding.

## What is a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement in psychology?

What is Fixed Ratio Reinforcement? – Fixed-ratio reinforcement is a schedule in which reinforcement is given out to a subject after a set number of responses. It is one of four partial reinforcement schedules that were identified by B.F. Skinner, the father of operant conditioning.B.F.

### What is an example of fixed ratio in children?

B.F. Skinner’s Schedules of Reinforcement – Skinner understood patterns of behavior in a very objective way. He would measure how different schedules of reinforcement affected the behaviors of the pigeons, discovering that the timing of the reinforcement mattered.

• Continuous, A continuous schedule of reinforcement is when a behavior is reinforced each time it occurs. For example, a child gets a sticker every time they pee in the potty; a student gets class money every time he finishes an assignment; your boss gives you a thank you card each time you work over-time. When the behavior is on this schedule, it is easiest to extinguish. That is, when it is no longer reinforced, it may escalate for a short time, but then will no longer occur. For example, if you put money into a vending machine and the machine did not recognize your input, you most likely will not put more money into it.
• Fixed interval, This schedule reinforces a behavior after a set amount of time. A worker gets paid every two weeks. A child gets to watch Saturday morning cartoons if they have been eating healthy. This schedule is slightly harder to extinguish than continuous, and typically creates a scalloped pattern where behavior increases as the time for reinforcement draws near. You can think of students who have a quiz every two weeks. The amount of studying is typically low at the beginning of the two weeks and increases as the time for the quiz gets closer.
• Variable interval, A variable interval schedule is when a behavior is reinforced after an unknown amount of time. For example, when you push the button for an elevator, the behavior only needs to occur once. The time for the elevator to arrive is unknown and is not influenced by how many times the button is pushed. This schedule is slighter harder to extinguish than fixed interval.
• Fixed ratio, A fixed ratio schedule is when behavior is reinforced after a certain amount of times the behavior occurs. For example, in a ratio of 1:3, a child could receive a treat if they use the potty successfully three times in a row, and in a ratio of 1:10, you would receive a free sandwich if you purchased ten. This method is often used with punch cards. This schedule generally produces consistent moderate rates of responding and is more difficult to extinguish than variable interval.
• Variable ratio, This schedule of reinforcement is when a behavior is reinforcement after it occurs a random number of times. There may be an average ratio such as 1:5, but each number required to receive the reinforcement would be unknown. The classic example for this is a slot machine. It produces a very steep rate of responding and is the most difficult to extinguish.
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### Is gambling an example of fixed ratio schedule?

Variable-ratio schedules provide partial, unpredictable reinforcement In operant conditioning, a variable-ratio schedule is a partial schedule of reinforcement in which a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a steady, high rate of response.

Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable-ratio schedule. Schedules of reinforcement play a central role in the operant conditioning process. The frequency with which a behavior is reinforced can help determine how quickly a response is learned as well as how strong the response might be.

Each schedule of reinforcement has its own unique set of characteristics. Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell

## What is an example of ratio variable in psychology?

Ratio – A ratio variable, has all the properties of an interval variable, and also has a clear definition of 0.0. When the variable equals 0.0, there is none of that variable. Examples of ratio variables include:

enzyme activity, dose amount, reaction rate, flow rate, concentration, pulse, weight, length, temperature in Kelvin (0.0 Kelvin really does mean “no heat”), survival time.

When working with ratio variables, but not interval variables, the ratio of two measurements has a meaningful interpretation. For example, because weight is a ratio variable, a weight of 4 grams is twice as heavy as a weight of 2 grams. However, a temperature of 10 degrees C should not be considered twice as hot as 5 degrees C.

 OK to compute. Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Frequency distribution Yes Yes Yes Yes Median and percentiles No Yes Yes Yes Add or subtract No No Yes Yes Mean, standard deviation, standard error of the mean No No Yes Yes Ratios, coefficient of variation No No No Yes

### What is a real life example of a fixed interval schedule in psychology?

Fixed Interval Schedules in the Real World –

• A weekly paycheck is a good example of a fixed-interval schedule. The employee receives reinforcement every seven days, which may result in a higher response rate as payday approaches.
• Dental exams also take place on a fixed-interval schedule. People who go in for their regular six-month checkup and cleaning often take extra care to clean their teeth right before the exam, yet they may not be as diligent on a day-to-day basis during the six months prior to the exam.

#### What is a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement in psychology?

Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR) – A fixed ratio schedule delivers reinforcement after a certain number of responses are delivered. Fixed ratio schedules produce high rates of response until a reward is received, which is then followed by a pause in the behavior.

#### What is an example of fixed ratio reinforcement at school?

Fixed ratio reinforcement is delivered after a given number of occurrences. Examples of fixed ratio reinforcement are reinforcing a child after every fifth math sheet is completed or after every third time a child exhibits sharing behavior.