What Is Meta Analysis In Psychology?
- Sabrina Sarro
A meta-analysis is where researchers combine the findings from multiple studies to draw an overall conclusion.
- 1 What is a meta-analysis in simple terms?
- 2 How is meta-analysis used in psychotherapy?
- 3 What is a meta-analysis vs systematic review?
- 4 What is another word for meta-analysis?
- 5 What is meta-analysis and why is it important?
- 6 How does meta-analysis work?
- 7 What are 2 examples of meta?
- 8 Is a meta-analysis an empirical study?
- 9 What is an example of a meta problem?
What is meta-analysis in psychology example?
Meta-Analysis Helps Psychologists Build Knowledge When scientists want to know the answer to a question that’s been studied a great deal, they conduct something called a meta-analysis, pooling data from multiple studies to arrive at one combined answer.
Some people think this creates a chilling effect, shutting off further inquiry. But the authors of a new paper published in, a journal of the, write that meta-analysis actually helps scientific fields develop. There are many meta-analyses in psychology and medicine, areas where studies find often conflicting results.
What is a Meta Analysis?
For example, some experiments might find that a particular drug decreases the risk of heart attack, while other experiments might find the drug doesn’t have any particular effect. A meta-analysis takes the results from all published studies on the same question and combines them; it’s as if someone had done a single study with a much larger sample size.
The answers that a meta-analysis comes up with can guide the field. But it may also stop scientists from looking at questions related to whatever the meta-analysis was about. “We started out asking the question, does it have a chilling effect? What happens after a meta-analysis?” says Richard D. Arvey of the National University of Singapore, who co-wrote the article with graduate student Meow Lan Evelyn Chan.
They looked at a particular area and found that researchers did continue to conduct studies after the meta-analysis was published. Meta-analysis can be very useful, Arvey and Chan argue. Arvey gives an example from his own experience: He was an expert witness in an age discrimination case.
The workers who thought they had been discriminated against had an expert witness who presented a study that found the kinds of things the company was accused of were because of age discrimination. But Arvey used a meta-analysis to show, he says, that “The data this person had produced was an outlier, a very unusual result compared to all the other studies.” He showed that this study did not represent what had been found by the field as a whole.
This method can also help guide scientists on what kinds of work to subsequently explore. Arvey is starting to study the neurological basis of leadership, and he’s using meta-analysis to find out what personality characteristics are generally associated with leadership.
I will start looking at specific measures of those traits in my own research,” he says. Just the fact that it’s possible to do meta-analyses in psychology shows that psychology is a fairly mature field, Arvey says. “In order to do meta-analysis, you have to have enough scholars who have studied the phenomenon in the first place.” Meta-analysis has helped psychology mature over the last 20 years, he says, helping scientists to develop paradigms for understanding human behavior and focus more on important questions.
: Meta-Analysis Helps Psychologists Build Knowledge
What is a meta-analysis in simple terms?
Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review – Glass first defined meta-analysis in the social science literature as “The statistical analysis of a large collection of analysis results from individual studies for the purpose of integrating the findings” 9, Meta-analysis is a quantitative, formal, epidemiological study design used to systematically assess the results of previous research to derive conclusions about that body of research.
- Typically, but not necessarily, the study is based on randomized, controlled clinical trials.
- Outcomes from a meta-analysis may include a more precise estimate of the effect of treatment or risk factor for disease, or other outcomes, than any individual study contributing to the pooled analysis.
- Identifying sources of variation in responses; that is, examining heterogeneity of a group of studies, and generalizability of responses can lead to more effective treatments or modifications of management.
Examination of heterogeneity is perhaps the most important task in meta-analysis. The Cochrane collaboration has been a long-standing, rigorous, and innovative leader in developing methods in the field 10, Major contributions include the development of protocols that provide structure for literature search methods, and new and extended analytic and diagnostic methods for evaluating the output of meta-analyses.
- Use of the methods outlined in the handbook should provide a consistent approach to the conduct of meta-analysis.
- Moreover, a useful guide to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses is the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) statement that replaced the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting of Meta-analyses) statement 11 – 13,
Meta-analyses are a subset of systematic review. A systematic review attempts to collate empirical evidence that fits prespecified eligibility criteria to answer a specific research question. The key characteristics of a systematic review are a clearly stated set of objectives with predefined eligibility criteria for studies; an explicit, reproducible methodology; a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies that meet the eligibility criteria; an assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies (e.g., through the assessment of risk of bias); and a systematic presentation and synthesis of the attributes and findings from the studies used.
- Systematic methods are used to minimize bias, thus providing more reliable findings from which conclusions can be drawn and decisions made than traditional review methods 14, 15,
- Systematic reviews need not contain a meta-analysisthere are times when it is not appropriate or possible; however, many systematic reviews contain meta-analyses 16,
The inclusion of observational medical studies in meta-analyses led to considerable debate over the validity of meta-analytical approaches, as there was necessarily a concern that the observational studies were likely to be subject to unidentified sources of confounding and risk modification 17,
Pooling such findings may not lead to more certain outcomes. Moreover, an empirical study showed that in meta-analyses were both randomized and non-randomized was included, nonrandomized studies tended to show larger treatment effects 18, Meta-analyses are conducted to assess the strength of evidence present on a disease and treatment.
One aim is to determine whether an effect exists; another aim is to determine whether the effect is positive or negative and, ideally, to obtain a single summary estimate of the effect. The results of a meta-analysis can improve precision of estimates of effect, answer questions not posed by the individual studies, settle controversies arising from apparently conflicting studies, and generate new hypotheses.
What is meta-analysis and example?
Examples of a meta-analysis include statistically combining the results of many different clinical trials on the cardiovascular benefits of taking daily aspirin for people at risk of heart disease and performing a statistical analysis of the findings from a large number of studies regarding the academic performance of
How is meta-analysis used in psychotherapy?
Meta-analysis Meta-analysis is an objective examination of published data from many studies of the same research topic identified through a literature search. Through the use of rigorous statistical methods, it can reveal patterns hidden in individual studies and can yield conclusions that have a high degree of reliability.
It is a method of analysis that is especially useful for gaining an understanding of complex phenomena when independent studies have produced conflicting findings. Meta-analysis provides much of the underpinning for evidence-based medicine. It is particularly helpful in identifying risk factors for a disorder, diagnostic criteria, and the effects of treatments on specific populations of people, as well as quantifying the size of the effects.
Meta-analysis is well-suited to understanding the complexities of human behavior. There are well-established scientific criteria for selecting studies for meta-analysis. Usually, meta-analysis is conducted on the gold standard of scientific research—randomized, controlled, double-blind trials. In addition, published guidelines not only describe standards for the inclusion of studies to be analyzed but also rank the quality of different types of studies.
For example, cohort studies are likely to provide more reliable information than case reports. Through statistical methods applied to the original data collected in the included studies, meta-analysis can account for and overcome many differences in the way the studies were conducted, such as the populations studied, how interventions were administered, and what outcomes were assessed and how.
Meta-analyses, and the questions they are attempting to answer, are typically specified and registered with a scientific organization, and, with the protocols and methods openly described and reviewed independently by outside investigators, the research process is highly transparent. Meta-analysis is often used to validate observed phenomena, determine the conditions under which effects occur, and get enough clarity in clinical to indicate a course of therapeutic action when individual studies have produced disparate findings. In reviewing the aggregate results of well-controlled studies meeting criteria for inclusion, meta-analysis can also reveal which research questions, test conditions, and research methods yield the most reliable results, not only providing findings of immediate clinical utility but furthering science.
The technique can be used to answer social and behavioral questions large and small. For example, to clarify whether or not having more options makes it harder for people to settle on any one item, a meta-analysis of over 53 conflicting studies on the phenomenon was conducted. The meta-analysis revealed that choice overload exists—but only under certain conditions.
You will have difficulty to watch from the massive array of possibilities, for example, if the shows differ from each other in multiple ways or if you don’t have any strong preferences when you finally get to sit down in front of the TV. A meta-analysis conducted in 2000, for example, answered the question of, Among other traits, they prove to be more extroverted and have more social skills than others. Another meta-analysis, in 2014, showed strong ties between physical as rated by others and having good mental and physical health.
The effects on such factors as are too small to reliably show up in individual studies but real enough to be detected in the aggregate number of study participants. Together, the studies validate hypotheses put forth by evolutionary psychologists that physical attractiveness is important in mate selection because it is a reliable cue of health and, likely, fertility.
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What is a meta-analysis vs systematic review?
Formulating research questions – A systematic review attempts to gather all available empirical research by using clearly defined, systematic methods to obtain answers to a specific question. A meta-analysis is the statistical process of analyzing and combining results from several similar studies.
Here, the definition of the word “similar” is not made clear, but when selecting a topic for the meta-analysis, it is essential to ensure that the different studies present data that can be combined. If the studies contain data on the same topic that can be combined, a meta-analysis can even be performed using data from only two studies.
However, study selection via a systematic review is a precondition for performing a meta-analysis, and it is important to clearly define the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes (PICO) parameters that are central to evidence-based research.
What are the two types of meta-analysis?
10.4 Meta-analysis of dichotomous outcomes – There are four widely used methods of meta-analysis for dichotomous outcomes, three fixed-effect methods (Mantel-Haenszel, Peto and inverse variance) and one random-effects method (DerSimonian and Laird inverse variance).
What is another word for meta-analysis?
Abstract – The purpose of meta-interpretive literature reviews is to combine the individual findings of different studies into a single, coherent analysis (here: meta-studies). The positions on how to handle that differ enormously. This is reflected in the variety of terms and definitions for synonym circumstances, e.g.
- Meta-analysis”, “systematic review”, “narrative review”, “meta-syntheses”.
- Also ambiguous is why in some cases the systematic is highlighted due to prefix the term “systematic”, in others not.
- This article is part of a master thesis at the Institute of Nursing Science (University Witten/Herdecke, Germany).
The aim of this article is to constitute the different opinions and put the terms in order. Illustrative examples of the synonymously used terms will therefore be identified and embedded in the underlying philosophies. It is assumed that the different positions result from the underlying philosophies.
What is meta-analysis and why is it important?
Benefits of meta-analysis – A meta-analysis has many benefits. By combining results into one large study, it reduces the time and energy that decision-makers spend looking at research. But the real benefit lies in the way meta-analysis can make sense of inconclusive and conflicting data from each original study.
Through meta-analysis, researchers can combine smaller studies, essentially making them into one big study, which may help show an effect. Additionally, a meta-analysis can help increase the accuracy of the results. This is also because it is, in effect, increasing the size of the study. By helping to bring into focus the sometimes blurry picture developing from the abundance of research evidence on any given topic, a meta-analysis is a very effective type of review.
Source: At Work, Issue 48, Spring 2007 : Institute for Work & Health, Toronto
How does meta-analysis work?
Introduction – Evidence-based medical practice aims to consolidate best research evidence with clinical and patient expertise. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential tools for synthesizing evidence needed to inform clinical decision making and policy.
- Systematic reviews summarize available literature using specific search parameters followed by critical appraisal and logical synthesis of multiple primary studies ( Gopalakrishnan and Ganeshkumar, 2013 ).
- Meta-analysis refers to the statistical analysis of the data from independent primary studies focused on the same question, which aims to generate a quantitative estimate of the studied phenomenon, for example, the effectiveness of the intervention ( Gopalakrishnan and Ganeshkumar, 2013 ).
In clinical research, systematic reviews and meta-analyses are a critical part of evidence-based medicine. However, in basic science, attempts to evaluate prior literature in such rigorous and quantitative manner are rare, and narrative reviews are prevalent.
- The goal of this manuscript is to provide a brief theoretical foundation, computational resources and workflow outline for performing a systematic or rapid review followed by a meta-analysis of basic research studies.
- Meta-analyses can be a challenging undertaking, requiring tedious screening and statistical understanding.
There are several guides available that outline how to undertake a meta-analysis in clinical research ( Higgins and Green, 2011 ). Software packages supporting clinical meta-analyses include the Excel plugins MetaXL ( Barendregt and Doi, 2009 ) and Mix 2.0 ( Bax, 2016 ), Revman ( Cochrane Collaboration, 2011 ), Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software, JASP ( JASP Team, 2018 ) and MetaFOR library for R ( Viechtbauer, 2010 ).
While these packages can be adapted to basic science projects, difficulties may arise due to specific features of basic science studies, such as large and complex datasets and heterogeneity in experimental methodology. To address these limitations, we developed a software package aimed to facilitate meta-analyses of basic research, MetaLab in MATLAB R2016b, with an intuitive graphical interface that permits users with limited statistical and coding background to proceed with a meta-analytic project.
We organized MetaLab into six modules ( Figure 1 ), each focused on different stages of the meta-analytic process, including graphical-data extraction, model parameter estimation, quantification and exploration of heterogeneity, data-synthesis, and meta-regression. Figure 1, General framework of MetaLab, The Data Extraction module assists with graphical data extraction from study figures. Fit Model module applies Monte-Carlo error propagation approach to fit complex datasets to model of interest. Prior to further analysis, reviewers have opportunity to manually curate and consolidate data from all sources.
Prepare Data module imports datasets from a spreadsheet into MATLAB in a standardized format. Heterogeneity, Meta-analysis and Meta-regression modules facilitate meta-analytic synthesis of data. In the present manuscript, we describe each step of the meta-analytic process with emphasis on specific considerations made when conducting a review of basic research.
The complete workflow of parameter estimation using MetaLab is demonstrated for evaluation of intracellular ATP content in osteoblasts (OB ic dataset) based on a rapid literature review. In addition, the features pertaining to larger datasets are explored with the ATP release kinetics from mechanically-stimulated mammalian cells (ATP release dataset) obtained as a result of a systematic review in our prior work ( Mikolajewicz et al., 2018 ).
What are 2 examples of meta?
In its simplest form, a book in which a character is writing a book or a movie in which a character is making a movie can be described as meta.
What is the strength of meta-analysis in psychology?
CONCLUSION – Meta-analysis is a powerful tool when used judiciously to objectively summarize existing evidence regarding a specific issue. Moreover, meta-analysis provides a more objective appraisal of the evidence than narrative review, and attempts to minimize bias by utilizing a methodological approach.
Meta-analysis provides a more precise estimate of the effect size and increases the generalizability of the results of individual studies. Therefore, it may enable the resolution of conflicts between studies, and yield conclusive results when individual studies are inconclusive. However, there are many caveats in the application of meta-analysis.
Conclusions derived from meta-analysis are susceptible to the methodological quality of included studies, as well as to publication bias and the formulation of eligibility criteria. Although combining the data from independent studies using meta-analytical methods can improve statistical precision, it cannot altogether prevent bias.
However, many criticisms of meta-analysis are true for narrative reviews as well, Although meta-analysis is criticized for its limitations, solutions to these problems exist. A systematic approach and transparency in conducting meta-analysis help to resolve conflicts and uncertainties between studies and to derive meaningful conclusions.
The use and value of metaanalysis is likely to increase in the future based on its power to reveal new findings.
Can meta-analysis be qualitative?
Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy – PubMed Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The,gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in,gov or,mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site. The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Display options Format Abstract PubMed PMID This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies.
Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented.
Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.
Berkeljon A, Baldwin SA. Berkeljon A, et al. Psychother Res.2009 Jul;19(4-5):511-8. doi: 10.1080/10503300802621172. Psychother Res.2009. PMID: 20183404 Zimmer L. Zimmer L. J Adv Nurs.2006 Feb;53(3):311-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03721.x. J Adv Nurs.2006. PMID: 16441536 Walsh D, Downe S. Walsh D, et al. J Adv Nurs.2005 Apr;50(2):204-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03380.x. J Adv Nurs.2005. PMID: 15788085 Review. Woodend AK. Woodend AK. Can J Cardiovasc Nurs.2007;17(3):32-6. Can J Cardiovasc Nurs.2007. PMID: 17941567 Review. Finfgeld-Connett D. Finfgeld-Connett D. J Adv Nurs.2010 Feb;66(2):246-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05250.x. J Adv Nurs.2010. PMID: 20423407
Is a meta-analysis an empirical study?
But how do you identify empirical research? Empirical research is typically published in scholarly journals. But not everything in scholarly journals is necessarily empirical research – you still need to carefully evaluate the methods of the article to determine if it is empirical research.1. 2. Look out for types of articles that are NOT empirical. Meta-analyses, literature reviews (with no other study components), editorials/letters, book reviews, case studies, opinions. 3. In some databases, such as PsycINFO, you can limit to empirical research under Methodology in the “Advanced Search” section. Or limit to evidence-based practice” in CINAHL. 4. In other databases, try using keywords such as empirical research, quantitative method, qualitative method, survey, ethnography, fieldwork or other type of empirical research method.
Can you do a systematic review without meta-analysis?
Linked Opinion – Grasping the nettle of narrative synthesis
- Mhairi Campbell, research associate 1,
- Joanne E McKenzie, associate professor 2,
- Amanda Sowden, professor 3,
- Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, clinical senior research fellow 1,
- Sue E Brennan, research fellow 2,
- Simon Ellis, associate director 4,
- Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, senior researcher 5,
- Rebecca Ryan, senior esearch fellow 6,
- Sasha Shepperd, professor 7,
- James Thomas, professor 8,
- Vivian Welch, associate professor 9,
- Hilary Thomson, senior research fellow 1
- 1 MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, UK
- 2 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
- 3 Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, UK
- 4 Centre for Guidelines, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, London, UK
- 5 Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
- 6 School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
- 7 Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
- 8 Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Coordinating Centre, University College London, London, UK
- 9 Bruyere Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada
Correspondence to: M Campbell Mhairi.Campbell glasgow.ac.uk
Accepted 8 October 2019
In systematic reviews that lack data amenable to meta-analysis, alternative synthesis methods are commonly used, but these methods are rarely reported. This lack of transparency in the methods can cast doubt on the validity of the review findings. The Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) guideline has been developed to guide clear reporting in reviews of interventions in which alternative synthesis methods to meta-analysis of effect estimates are used.
What are the four basic steps of a meta-analysis?
The steps of meta analysis are similar to that of a systematic review and include framing of a question, searching of literature, abstraction of data from individual studies, and framing of summary estimates and examination of publication bias.
Why is it called a meta-analysis?
meta-analysis | Meaning & Origin Meta-analysis is a statistical process that combines the data of multiple studies to find common results and to identify overall trends. Atlas of Science The prefix meta-, when added to the name of a subject or a discipline, forms the name of a new subject that analyzes the first one at a more abstract or higher level. It follows that meta-analysis is a field of study that analyzes already existing analyses.
Meta-analysis, in the statistical sense, was coined by the statistician Gene V. Glass. In a 1976 Educational Researcher article, Glass wrote, “The term is a bit grand, but it is precise and aptMeta-analysis refers to the analysis of analyses.” The process of meta-analysis itself predates Glass by several decades, and is featured in the work of well-known statisticians.
The term meta-analysis was also in use before Glass brought it its statistical sense. Since the mid-1900s, meta-analysis has been used in the discipline of philosophy to refer to the analysis of the foundational assumptions upon which individual theories or tenets are based.
- Meta analysis can be used as a guide to answer the question ‘does what we are doing make a difference to X?’, even if ‘X’ has been measured using different instruments across a range of different people.
- Meta-analysis provides a systematic overview of quantitative research which has examined a particular question.” James Neill, “Meta-Analysis Research Methodology,” Wilderdom (May 10, 2006) “When performed on a computer, meta-analysis helps the reviewer surmount the complexity problem.
The reviewer can code hundreds of studies into a data set. The data set can then be manipulated, measured, and displayed by the computer in a variety of ways.” Rudner, Lawrence, Gene V Glass, David L. Evartt, and Patrick J. Emery, A user’s guide to the meta-analysis of research studies (2002) “Meta-analysis would be used for the following purposes: To establish statistical significance with studies that have conflicting results; To develop a more correct estimate of effect magnitude; To provide a more complex analysis of harms, safety data, and benefits; To examine subgroups with individual numbers that are not statistically significant” “Study Design 101: Meta-Analysis,” Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library (November 2011) Meta-analysis is often used to determine general information from a systematic review procedure.
- By aggregating the results of several studies, statisticians are able to use meta-analysis to isolate the common findings.
- This procedure can greatly reduce the margin of error created by variations in the studies, and allows researchers to gather more exact information.
- However, meta-analysis is fundamentally a human-driven process that can be biased or manipulated to serve different agendas.
Past meta-analytical reports have been criticized for failing to include all available data or being influenced by the author’s personal interests. Meta-analysis is often used in medical studies to determine the effects of a treatment on various subjects.
- Most recently, meta-analysis has been applied to studies involving gene expression in microRNA.
- This is not meant to be a formal definition of meta-analysis like most terms we define on Dictionary.com, but is rather an informal word summary that hopefully touches upon the key aspects of the meaning and usage of meta-analysis that will help our users expand their word mastery.
: meta-analysis | Meaning & Origin
What is an example of a meta problem?
An issue underlying several other problems. Essential to resolving these problems is understanding, and possibly resolving, this underlying issue. For example, society, or a section of a society, is suffering from crime, drug abuse, low education levels, and the like.