### What Is Random Sampling In Psychology?

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• 21 Random sampling is a sampling technique where every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected.

## What is an example of a random sampling?

Understanding a Simple Random Sample – Researchers can create a simple random sample using a couple of methods. With a lottery method, each member of the population is assigned a number, after which numbers are selected at random. An example of a simple random sample would be the names of 25 employees being chosen out of a hat from a company of 250 employees.

In this case, the population is all 250 employees, and the sample is random because each employee has an equal chance of being chosen. Random sampling is used in science to conduct randomized control tests or for blinded experiments. The example in which the names of 25 employees out of 250 are chosen out of a hat is an example of the lottery method at work.

Each of the 250 employees would be assigned a number between 1 and 250, after which 25 of those numbers would be chosen at random. Because individuals who make up the subset of the larger group are chosen at random, each individual in the large population set has the same probability of being selected.

## What is random sampling and why is it used?

Key Takeaways –

A simple random sample is one of the methods researchers use to choose a sample from a larger population.This method works if there is an equal chance that any of the subjects in a population will be chosen. Researchers choose simple random sampling to make generalizations about a population. Major advantages include its simplicity and lack of bias.Among the disadvantages are difficulty gaining access to a list of a larger population, time, costs, and that bias can still occur under certain circumstances.

### Why are random samples used in psychology?

In statistics, a sample is a subset of a population that is used to represent the entire group as a whole. When doing psychology research, it is often impractical to survey every member of a particular population because the sheer number of people is simply too large.

### What are the 4 types of random sampling?

There are four primary, random (probability) sampling methods – simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling.

## What is random sampling method in simple words?

Simple random sampling is a type of probability sampling in which the researcher randomly selects a subset of participants from a population. Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Data is then collected from as large a percentage as possible of this random subset.

### When should random sampling be used?

When Is It Better to Use Simple Random vs. Systematic Sampling? Under, a sample of items is chosen randomly from a population, and each item has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple random sampling uses a table of random numbers or an electronic random number generator to select items for its sample.

1. For example, the lottery operates based on a simple random sampling, with all numbers having an equal probability of getting chosen.
2. Meanwhile, involves selecting items from an ordered population using a skip or sampling interval.
3. That means that every ” n th” data sample is chosen in a large data set.

The use of systematic sampling is more appropriate compared to simple random sampling when a project’s budget is tight and requires simplicity in execution and understanding the results of a study. Systematic sampling is better than random sampling when data does not exhibit patterns and there is a low risk of data manipulation by a researcher, as it is also often a cheaper and more straightforward sampling method.

In simple random sampling, each data point has an equal probability of being chosen. Meanwhile, systematic sampling chooses a data point per each predetermined interval.While systematic sampling is easier to execute than simple random sampling, it can produce skewed results if the data set exhibits patterns. It is also more easily manipulated.On the contrary, simple random sampling is best used for smaller data sets and can produce more representative results.

Simple random sampling requires that each element of the population be separately identified and selected, while systematic sampling relies on a sampling interval rule to select all individuals. If the population size is small or the size of the individual samples and their number are relatively small, random sampling provides the best results since all candidates have an equal chance of being chosen.

However, as the required sample size increases and a researcher needs to create multiple samples from the population, this can be very time-consuming and expensive. As a result, systematic sampling becomes a preferred method under such circumstances. Systematic sampling is better than simple random sampling when there is no pattern in the data.

However, if the population is not random, a researcher runs the risk of selecting elements for the sample that exhibit the same characteristics. For instance, if every eighth widget in a factory was damaged due to a certain malfunctioning machine, a researcher is more likely to select these broken widgets with systematic sampling than with simple random sampling, resulting in a biased sample.

1. When deciding when would you use systematic sampling, it’s important to consider that there is always a risk of manipulation that poses a threat to running an informative and clear study.
2. In that vein, in cases where is a low risk of data manipulation, systematic sampling is preferable to simple random sampling for its ease of use.

However, if such a risk is high when a researcher can manipulate the interval length to obtain desired results—for example, being able to change every 100th number being pulled in a systematic sample—a simple random sampling technique would be more appropriate.

### Why is random sampling the best method?

Once a population of interest is defined, how do we know that our sample of students participating in the study is representative of that population? When feasible, statisticians select a sampling approach. Sampling involves selecting units from a population of interest such that the sampling units represent the whole population.

Within the context of studying reading interventions within schools, the unit being sampled can range from a number of students within a classroom to entire classrooms or schools, or even a combination of these units. Random sampling is one such procedure that selects a sample of units from a population by chance, typically to facilitate generalization from the sample to the population (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002).

Random sampling ensures that results obtained from your sample should approximate what would have been obtained if the entire population had been measured (Shadish et al., 2002). The simplest random sample allows all the units in the population to have an equal chance of being selected. Often in practice we rely on more complex sampling techniques.

The phrase by chance in the definition for random sampling is what distinguishes it from many other sampling procedures. In many intervention studies, for instance, a convenience sample is chosen—schools are selected that have the infrastructure and time to partake in the study, or certain teachers within the school are selected because they are willing or able to have their students participate in the study.

1. Likewise, a purposive sample may be chosen.
2. For example, administrators volunteer their highest-quality teachers to participate because they feel it increases the chances that the reading intervention will be found to be successful.
3. In each of these cases, the type of sampling used is not random by definition, because not every teacher or school in the population has an equal chance of being selected to participate.
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Thus, the ability to generalize results from such studies to a larger population (known as the external validity of the study) can be compromised. Perhaps the most important benefit to selecting random samples is that it enables the researcher to rely upon assumptions of statistical theory to draw conclusions from what is observed (Moore & McCabe, 2003).

1. For example, if data are produced by random sampling, any statistics generated from the data can be assumed to follow a specific distribution.
2. The distribution with which many educators are most familiar is the normal distribution of a bell-shaped curve.
3. In this distribution, most of the students’ data would fall in the middle, or the average range of performance, and fewer students’ data would fall in the very high or very low performance ranges on either side of the middle.

This provides the researcher a better understanding of how the results from the sample relate to what the results would be for the whole population. Quantifying the degree to which we can confidently know how sample results relate to the population is key to drawing sound inferences and generalizing those results to the student population.

1. Of course, even within the context of random sampling, several other factors influence a reading study’s external validity.
2. For example, there is the role of sample size to consider.
3. Larger random samples will typically produce more stable results, meaning estimates for the effect the intervention had on student outcomes can be obtained with smaller margins of error.

There is often a balance the school researcher must consider: obtaining large enough samples to adequately represent the population and achieve reliable results while also working within the financial and logistical constraints of conducting the study.

## What are the pros and cons of random sampling?

Created by: Created on: 20-02-17 18:15

Free from researcher bias Prevents from choosing people who may support their hypothesis

Time consuming May end up with an unrepresentative sample Some may refuse to take part

Most fair way of sampling, however it may be unrepresentative of the population

Copyright Get Revising 2023 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No.806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE : Random Sampling

### What is the best random sampling method?

Types of probability sampling with examples: – Probability sampling is a technique in which researchers choose samples from a larger population based on the theory of probability. This sampling method considers every member of the population and forms samples based on a fixed process.

• Simple random sampling: One of the best probability sampling techniques that helps in saving time and resources is the Simple Random Sampling method. It is a reliable method of obtaining information where every single member of a population is chosen randomly, merely by chance. Each individual has the same probability of being chosen to be a part of a sample. For example, in an organization of 500 employees, if the HR team decides on conducting team-building activities, they would likely prefer picking chits out of a bowl. In this case, each of the 500 employees has an equal opportunity of being selected.
• Cluster sampling: Cluster sampling is a method where the researchers divide the entire population into sections or clusters representing a population. Clusters are identified and included in a sample based on demographic parameters like age, sex, location, etc. This makes it very simple for a survey creator to derive effective inferences from the feedback. For example, suppose the United States government wishes to evaluate the number of immigrants living in the Mainland US. In that case, they can divide it into clusters based on states such as California, Texas, Florida, Massachusetts, Colorado, Hawaii, etc. This way of conducting a survey will be more effective as the results will be organized into states and provide insightful immigration data.
• Systematic sampling: Researchers use the systematic sampling method to choose the sample members of a population at regular intervals. It requires selecting a starting point for the sample and sample size determination that can be repeated at regular intervals. This type of sampling method has a predefined range; hence, this sampling technique is the least time-consuming. For example, a researcher intends to collect a systematic sample of 500 people in a population of 5000. He/she numbers each element of the population from 1-5000 and will choose every 10th individual to be a part of the sample (Total population/ Sample Size = 5000/500 = 10).
• Stratified random sampling: Stratified random sampling is a method in which the researcher divides the population into smaller groups that don’t overlap but represent the entire population. While sampling, these groups can be organized, and then draw a sample from each group separately. For example, a researcher looking to analyze the characteristics of people belonging to different annual income divisions will create strata (groups) according to the annual family income. Eg – less than \$20,000, \$21,000 – \$30,000, \$31,000 to \$40,000, \$41,000 to \$50,000, etc. By doing this, the researcher concludes the characteristics of people belonging to different income groups. Marketers can analyze which income groups to target and which ones to eliminate to create a roadmap that would bear fruitful results.

### What are 5 random sampling techniques?

Types of Sampling – There are five types of sampling: Random, Systematic, Convenience, Cluster, and Stratified.

Random sampling is analogous to putting everyone’s name into a hat and drawing out several names. Each element in the population has an equal chance of occuring. While this is the preferred way of sampling, it is often difficult to do. It requires that a complete list of every element in the population be obtained. Computer generated lists are often used with random sampling. You can generate random numbers using the TI82 calculator. Systematic sampling is easier to do than random sampling. In systematic sampling, the list of elements is “counted off”. That is, every k th element is taken. This is similar to lining everyone up and numbering off “1,2,3,4; 1,2,3,4; etc”. When done numbering, all people numbered 4 would be used. Convenience sampling is very easy to do, but it’s probably the worst technique to use. In convenience sampling, readily available data is used. That is, the first people the surveyor runs into. Cluster sampling is accomplished by dividing the population into groups – usually geographically. These groups are called clusters or blocks. The clusters are randomly selected, and each element in the selected clusters are used. Stratified sampling also divides the population into groups called strata. However, this time it is by some characteristic, not geographically. For instance, the population might be separated into males and females. A sample is taken from each of these strata using either random, systematic, or convenience sampling.

#### What is the most basic random sampling technique?

Simple Random Sampling – Simple random sampling is the basic sampling technique where we select a group of subjects (a sample) for study from a larger group (a population). Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

### What is the difference between sample and random sample?

A representative sample is a group or set chosen from a larger statistical population according to specified characteristics. A random sample is a group or set chosen in a random manner from a larger population.

### Is random sampling non-probability?

Text begins Non-probability sampling is a method of selecting units from a population using a subjective (i.e. non-random) method. Since non-probability sampling does not require a complete survey frame, it is a fast, easy and inexpensive way of obtaining data.

• However, in order to draw conclusions about the population from the sample, it must assume that the sample is representative of the population.
• This is often a risky assumption to make in the case of non-probability sampling due to the difficulty of assessing whether the assumption holds.
• In addition, since elements are chosen arbitrarily, there is no way to estimate the probability of any one element being included in the sample.

Also, no assurance is given that each item has a chance of being included, making it impossible either to estimate sampling variability or to identify possible bias. In general, official statistical agencies around the world have been using probability sampling as their preferred tool to meet information needs about a population of interest.

the decline in response rates in probability surveys; the high cost of data collection; the increased burden on respondents; the desire for access to real-time statistics, and the surge of non-probability data sources such as web surveys and social media.

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Some have suggested the possibility of a shift in the paradigm and traditional approach to statistics. However, data from non-probability sources have a few challenges with respect to data quality, including the potential presence of participation and selection bias.

### Why is random sampling easy?

Advantages of Simple Random Sampling – Simple random sampling has several advantages, including:

1. It is a fair sampling method, and if applied appropriately, it helps reduce any bias involved compared to any other sampling method.
2. Since it involves a large sample frame, it is usually easy to pick a smaller sample size from the existing larger population.
3. The person conducting the research doesn’t need to have prior knowledge of the data he/ she is collecting. One can ask a question to gather the researcher need not be a subject expert.
4. This sampling method is a fundamental method of collecting the data, You don’t need any technical knowledge. You only require essential listening and recording skills.
5. Since the population size is vast in this type of sampling method, there is no restriction on the sample size that the researcher needs to create. From a larger population, you can get a small sample quite quickly.
6. The data collected through this sampling method is well informative; the more samples better is the quality of the data.

Overall, this is a valuable and versatile method for gathering data and making inferences about populations.

#### What are the two requirements for a random sample?

Chapter 6: Probability Why probability? Because we’re now moving towards talking about inferential statistics, that is making claims about populations based on information from samples. So we’ll start this chapter by talking about probabilities. Then we’ll move onto a discussion of normal distributions. And finally, we’ll integrate the two topics. We deal with probabilities everyday.

– lotto tickets, weather forcasts, medical reports on the news (e.g., risks of cancer) In a situation where several different outcomes are possible, we define the probability for any particular outcome as a fraction or proportion. If the possible outcomes are identified as A, B, C, D, and so on, then: Probability of A = number of outcomes classified as A total number of possible outcomes – making it more concrete:

you are playing card wars with your kid sister, each of you has your own deck of 52 cards. She picks the King of spades from her deck. What are the odds that you’ll pick the King of Spades from your deck? prob of K-spades = _picking the King of Spades _ total number of possible cards picked = 1 / 52

Notation of probability: p(King-spades) = f / N

Notice that we’ve already seen this f / N formula before. Does anybody remember it?

Think back to our frequency distribution tables. We used this formula to figure out proportions. In fact probabilities are most often given as proportions (but can also give them as fractions or percentages). We’ll come back to this in a little bit.

However, for this definition of probability to be accurate, the selection of individuals (sampling) must be obtained by random sampling

A random sample must satisfy two requirements:

1, Each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected.2, If more than one individual is to be selected for the sample, there must beconstant probability for each and every selection.

so let’s reconsider our card game situation

– suppose that you are a card cheat and you stacked the deck so that all of the high cards are on the top, and the low cards are on the bottom.

So you turn over the top card, and surprise, it is a high card.

No, because not every card had an equal chance of being selected (becasue the low cards were not near the top of the deck).

– suppose that you and your sister are playing with one deck of cards.

Now she picks the King of Spades. Now you pick from the remaining cards.

Is your chance of picking the King of Spades still 1 in 52? How about 1 in 51?

No, because she already picked the King of Spades, so it isn’t available for future selection. – what you need to do to have a random sample, is replace the King of Spades into the deck.

Sampling with replacement – a sampling method in which each sample (individual) is replaced into the population before the selection of the next sample (individual)

Okay, let’s return to frequency distributions and how they relate to probability. Consider the following distribution.

 _ X f _ p _ 5 2,05 4 10,25 3 16,40 2 8,20 1 4,10

You can see that our proportion column corresponds to probability. Which in turn correspond to the area under the curve for those intervals,

Imagine that they are numbered tokens in a bag, and that your task is to reach in and pull one out.

What is the probability of selecting (sampling) a 3?

p (3) = f / N = 16 / 40 =,40

What is the probability of selecting (sampling) a 5?

p (5) = f / N = 2 / 40 =,05

What is the probability of selecting a token with a value greater than 2?

 p (X > 2) = ?,05 +,25 +,40 =,70

What is the probability of selecting a token with a value less than 5?

 p (X < 5) = ?,10 +,20 +,40 +,25 =,95

What is the probability of selecting a token with a value greater than 1 & less than 4?

 p (4 > X > 1) = ?,20 +,40 =,60

/ul>

Now we’ll move onto a different distribution, the Normal Distribution, and see how we work with probabilities. If a distribution is normally distributed then it is described in the following way: X ~ N ((, ().

Normal distribution is a commonly found distribution that is symmetrical and unimodal, It is defined by the following equation:

Y = A few things to note about Normal Distributions,

Not all unimodal, symmetrical curves are normal, but a lot are For this class, we won’t worry about how close a distribution is to normal, in fact for most of the course we’ll assume that the distribution is normal A smooth curve like that above is refered to as a density curve (rather than a frequency curve) The area under (any density) curve must sum to 1. Why? remember that the area under the curve refers to the probabilities (or proportions) and the total probability must equal 1. The normal distriution is often transformed into z-scores. For a normal distribution:

34.13% of the scores will fall between m and 1 stdev.13.59% of the scores will fall between 1stdev & 2stdev.2.28% of the scores will fall between the 2stdev & 3stdev.

An important tool that we’ll use is the unit normal table, You’ll find it in the appendix of your book (pg. A24-A26). In this table are a bunch of z-scores and proportions for the Standard Normal Distribution (which is the z-score standarized Normal distribution; N(0,1)).

Column A – the Z-score in question Column B – the p(Z < z) - the proportion of the distribution in the Body Column C - the p(Z > z) – the proportion of the distribution in the Tail

 (A) z _ 0.00 0.01 : : 0.30 0.31 : 1.00 : (B) Proportion in Body 0.5000 0.5040 : : 0.6179 0.6217 : 0.8413 : (C) Proportion in Tail 0.5000 0.4960 : : 0.3821 0.3783 : 0.1587 :

Notice that z = 1.0 =,5000 +,3413 = the median + the 34.13% that we mentioned before So by using the table, we can an ask about different areas under the curve. And similar to last chapter, we can go in both directions. That is, from the table of z-scores to probabilities and/or from probabilities to z-scores.

Note : Don’t underestimate the value of drawing a picture of the distribution and trying to just “eyeball” the answer (in addition to doing the math). It just may save you from making a mistake.

Here is the “best” way to find a probability from the table :

step 1 : sktech the distribution, showing the mean & standard deviation step 2 : sketch the score in question, being sure to place it on the correct side of the mean & roughly the correct distance from the mean step 3 : read the problem again to see if you need the probability of getting a score > or <. Shade this area on your sketch. step 4 : translate the X score into a Z-score step 5 : Use the correct column (and sign) to find the probability in the unit normal table.

Examples : Here is the “best” way to find a Z-score from a probability :

step 1 : Sketch the normal distribution step 2 : shade the region corresponding to the required probability step 3 : locate the probability in the correct column of the table step 4 : label the edge of the shaded region with the z-score from the step above step 5 : compute the corresponding raw score (X).

** keep in mind that the percentile rank is equal to the probability of being at or below a given score. Thus, percentile ranks less than 50% refer to the lower tail.

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Example :

 What IQ score do you need to have to be in the top 5% of the population? The upper-tail is needed. p = 0.05 – look at the table -> z = 1.65 so X = (1.65)(15) + 100 = 124.75

/ul> Sometimes we need to find the probability that X will fall between two scores rather than simply above a score or below a score.

step 1 : Sketch the curve & shade the region of interest step 2 : Translate both scores to Z-scores step 3 : Look up the probabilities of scoring each of the two z-scores step 4 : Add (or subtract) the probabilities accordingly

Example :

 What is the prob. of scoring between 300 and 650 on the SAT? recall: m = 500, s =100 p(z < (650 - 500) = p(z < 1.5) = 0.9332 100 p(z < (300 - 500) = p(z < -2.0) = 0.0228 100 the,9332 from 650 includes the lower tail, so we determine the proportion in the lower tail, and subtract that p(300 < z < 650) =,9332 -,0228 =.9104

/ul> And finally, you might want to know what percentage lies outside two points (essentially the opposite of the last situation).

 What is the prob. of scoring lower than 300 or higher than 650 on the SAT? recall: m = 500, s =100 p(z > (650 – 500) = p(z > 1.5) = 0.0668 100 p(z < (300 - 500) = p(z < -2.0) = 0.0228 100 the two numbers both reflect the proportions in the tails, so we just need to add them together p(300 < z < 650) =,0668 +,0228 =.0896

/ul> Another thing that you can use the unit normal table for is to find percentile ranks and interquartile ranges Examples :

 What is your percentile rank if you have an IQ of 130? for IQ scores m = 100, s =15 z = (130 – 100)/15 = 2.0 -look at the table-> need Column B p = 0.9772 -> percntile rank 97.72 What is the interquartile range for the SAT? recall: m = 500, s =100 -look at the table -> find 25% & 75% 0.25 = a Z-score of -0.67 0.50 = a Z-score of +0.67 X = Z s + m = (-.67)(100) + 500 = 433 = (+.67)(100) + 500 = 567 IQR = 567 – 433 = 134

/ul> Note there is a short-cut for figuring out the IQR. Since the range is always +,67 s, then you can compute the IQR as being (2)(.67)( m )

example: for SAT: (2)(.67)(100) = 134

Let’s talk about another very common distribution, the binomial distribution, This is a distribution that results when there are only two possible outcomes for a particular situation. For example, flip an unbiased coin: heads or tails, answer a yes/no question, a person either survives or dies, etc.

two categories: A & B p = p(A) = the probability of A q = p(B) = the probability of B

So what does p + q = ?? -> 1.0

n = the number of individuals (or observations) in the sample X = the number of times a category A event occurs in the sample

Using this notation, the binomial distribution shows the probability associated with each value of X from X = 0 to X = n. Example 1

consider the lottery. Suppose that you could win 1 million dollars. And that each ticket costs a dollar. With a 1 in a million chance of winning, then P(a) = 1/1,000,000 and P(b) = 999,999/1,000,000. So the probability of winning is,000001 The probability of losing is,999999 now let’s start figuring out how many tickets to buy.

 n (# of tickets purchased) 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 P(winning at least once) 0.000001 0.00001 0.0001 0.0009950 0.00995017 0.09516263 0.63212074

Notice that even if you spend \$1,000,000 to buy 1,000,000 tickets, your chances of winning are still only about 63%.

Example 2

Let’s consider another example: the flipping of a coin. A = heads; B = tails

 p = p(A) = 1/2 q = p(B) = 1/2

suppose that n = 2 (that is, we flip the coin twice), how many possible outcomes are there B(2, 0.5)? four

Recall, that I mentioned that the binomial distribution, when n is high, the normal distribution is a good approximation for the binomial distribution. Look how close it is with an n = 6 ( pn =,5*6 = 3). So when n = large ( pn > 10) and ( qn > 10), we can approximate the binomial distribution with the normal distribution.

 Mean: m = pn Standard deviation: s =

z = We can use the z-scores from the unit normal table. However, it is important to remember that the value of X on a Normal distribution is really an interval, not a point, so we need to consider the real limits when approximating the binomial distribution. = sqroot (100*.10*.90) = sqroot (9) = 3 p(X > lower real limit of 15) = P(X > 14.5) = P(Z > 14.5-10 ) 3.0 = P(z > 1.5) = 0.0668 example (from book) : suppose that you take a multiple-choice test, with 4 possible answers. You didn’t study so you essentially close your eyes and guess. What is the probability that you’ll get 14 questions right?

 p = P(correct) = 1/4 q = P(wrong) = 3/4 pn = (1*48)/4 = 12 qn = (3*48)/4 = 36

notice that both pn and qn are greater than 10 so we can assume that the distribution will be approximately normally distributed. Also, remember that the score 14 really corresponds to the interval from 13.5 to 14.5.

 m = pn = 12 s = sqroot ( pqn ) = sqr(48*.25*.75) = sqroot (9) = 3 from table X – m = 13.5 – 12.0 = 0.50 -> 0.3085 s 3 X – m = 14.5 – 12.0 = 0.83 -> 0.2033 s 3 so the area between the two z-scores is: 0.3085 – 0.2033 = 0.1052

### What are the 5 random sampling?

Types of Sampling – There are five types of sampling: Random, Systematic, Convenience, Cluster, and Stratified.

Random sampling is analogous to putting everyone’s name into a hat and drawing out several names. Each element in the population has an equal chance of occuring. While this is the preferred way of sampling, it is often difficult to do. It requires that a complete list of every element in the population be obtained. Computer generated lists are often used with random sampling. You can generate random numbers using the TI82 calculator. Systematic sampling is easier to do than random sampling. In systematic sampling, the list of elements is “counted off”. That is, every k th element is taken. This is similar to lining everyone up and numbering off “1,2,3,4; 1,2,3,4; etc”. When done numbering, all people numbered 4 would be used. Convenience sampling is very easy to do, but it’s probably the worst technique to use. In convenience sampling, readily available data is used. That is, the first people the surveyor runs into. Cluster sampling is accomplished by dividing the population into groups – usually geographically. These groups are called clusters or blocks. The clusters are randomly selected, and each element in the selected clusters are used. Stratified sampling also divides the population into groups called strata. However, this time it is by some characteristic, not geographically. For instance, the population might be separated into males and females. A sample is taken from each of these strata using either random, systematic, or convenience sampling.

## What is an example of population and random sample?

Collecting data from a sample – When your population is large in size, geographically dispersed, or difficult to contact, it’s necessary to use a sample. With statistical analysis, you can use sample data to make estimates or test hypotheses about population data.

Example: Collecting data from a sample You want to study political attitudes in young people. Your population is the 300,000 undergraduate students in the Netherlands. Because it’s not practical to collect data from all of them, you use a sample of 300 undergraduate volunteers from three Dutch universities who meet your inclusion criteria,

This is the group who will complete your online survey. Ideally, a sample should be randomly selected and representative of the population. Using probability sampling methods (such as simple random sampling or stratified sampling ) reduces the risk of sampling bias and enhances both internal and external validity,

## What is an example simple random sampling formula?

For example, if you randomly select 1000 people from a town with a population of 100,000 residents, each person has a 1000/100000 = 0.01 probability. That’s a simple calculation requiring no additional knowledge about the population’s composition. Hence, simple random sampling.

#### What is a real life example of systematic random sampling?

#1. Systematic Random Sampling – Simple systematic sampling is the most basic type. You just need to select from a random starting point but with a fixed, periodic sampling interval. Example: Suppose a supermarket wants to study their customers’ buying habits.