What Is Spontaneous Recovery In Psychology?

What Is Spontaneous Recovery In Psychology
Function – Pavlov recorded several phenomena associated with classical conditioning. He found that the rate of acquisition, the initial stages of learning, depended on the noticeability of the stimulus and the time in between the introduction of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.

  1. In Pavlov’s experiment, this would translate to the time in between the bell ringing and the presentation of food.
  2. Second, Pavlov observed that the conditioned response was vulnerable to extinction.
  3. If the conditioned stimulus is continuously supplied in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus, then the conditioned response becomes weaker and weaker until it disappears.

In Pavlov’s experiment, this would translate to Pavlov ringing the bell without giving food to the dogs. Eventually, the dogs would stop salivating at the sound of the bell. However, spontaneous recovery was also observed. Even if a substantial amount of time had passed, the conditioned response would easily recover if the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus were paired again.

Lastly, he found that stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination can occur. Stimulus generalization occurs when the dog can respond to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. For example, if Pavlov’s dogs salivated at the sound of another ringing sound such as a cell phone ringing, that would be stimulus generalization.

Stimulus discrimination, on the other hand, is being able to differentiate between similar stimuli and respond only to the correct stimuli.

What is spontaneous recovery in psychology example?

Spontaneous Recovery Examples – Even if you are not familiar with much of psychology’s history, you have probably at least heard of Ivan Pavlov’s famous experiments with dogs. In Pavlov’s classic experiment, dogs were conditioned to salivate to the sound of a tone.

The sound of a tone was repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. Eventually, the sound of the tone alone led the dogs to salivate. Pavlov also noted that no longer pairing the tone with the presentation of food led to the extinction, or disappearance, of the salivation response.   So what would happen if there was a “rest period” where the stimulus was no longer present? Pavlov found that after a two-hour rest period, the salivation response suddenly reappeared when the tone was presented.

Essentially, the animals spontaneously recovered the response which was previously extinct. For another example, imagine that you have used classical conditioning to train your dog to expect food whenever he hears the ding of a bell. When you ring the bell, your dog runs to the kitchen and sits by his food bowl.

What is spontaneous recovery in simple terms?

What is Spontaneous Recovery – Spontaneous recovery refers to the sudden reappearance of a previously extinct conditioned response after the unconditioned stimulus has been removed for some time. This phenomenon can occur after these two types of conditioning have taken place.

What is spontaneous recovery in Pavlov?

Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning, In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay.

What is the difference between spontaneous recovery and extinction in psychology?

With extinction, the behavior ceases when the conditioned stimulus is presented, or the behavior becomes sporadic when the stimulus is present. Spontaneous recovery can only happen after extinction and usually follows a rest period where no stimuli are presented.

Is spontaneous recovery good or bad?

Spontaneous recovery is an important process, playing a role in memory, learning, trauma, and mental and physical health.

What is an example of spontaneous recovery with children?

Spontaneous recovery is when a previously conditioned, and then extinguished, response reemerges. For example, if a child learns that he gets a toy when he cries, he will cry when he wants a toy.

What is the difference between spontaneous recovery and response burst?

Spontaneous recovery vs extinction burst – Spontaneous recovery is the return of extinguished behavior after extinction has passed for a period of time. Some people confuse this relapse effect with extinction bursts. The difference between spontaneous recovery and extinction burst is that spontaneous recovery is a complete return after the disappearance of a behavior while extinction burst is a temporary increase of behavior that is being extinct ​4​,

Which is true of spontaneous recovery?

Spontaneous recovery can happen long after the response has been extinguished. Which statement is TRUE about spontaneous recovery? A. Spontaneous recovery suggests that the organism has forgotten about the connection between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

What is the difference between spontaneous recovery and renewal effect?

In the renewal effect, an extinguished response returns whenever the subject is tested outside the extinction context (Bouton & Bolles, 1979; Thomas, Larsen, & Ayres, 2003). In spontaneous recovery, the retrieval of the extinguished behavior occurs merely by the passing of time (Pavlov, 1927; Rescorla, 2004).

What does spontaneous recovery reveal about extinction?

Abstract – In honeybees, the proboscis extension response (PER) can be conditioned by associating an odor stimulus (CS) to a sucrose reward (US). Conditioned responses to the CS, which are acquired by most bees after a single CS-US pairing, disappear after repeated unrewarded presentations of the CS, a process called extinction.

Extinction is usually thought to be based either on (1) the disruption of the stored CS-US association, or (2) the formation of an inhibitory “CS-no US” association that is better retrieved than the initial CS-US association. The observation of spontaneous recovery, i.e., the reappearance of responses to the CS after time passes following extinction, is traditionally interpreted as a proof for the formation of a transient inhibitory association.

To provide a better understanding of extinction in honeybees, we examined whether time intervals during training and extinction or the number of conditioning and extinction trials have an effect on the occurrence of spontaneous recovery. We found that spontaneous recovery mostly occurs when conditioning and testing took place in a massed fashion (1-min intertrial intervals).

Moreover, spontaneous recovery depended on the time elapsed since extinction, 1 h being an optimum. Increasing the number of conditioning trials improved the spontaneous recovery level, whereas increasing the number of extinction trials reduced it. Lastly, we show that after single-trial conditioning, spontaneous recovery appears only once after extinction.

These elements suggest that in honeybees extinction of the PER actually reflects the impairment of the CS-US association, but that depending on training parameters different memory substrates are affected. A general property of associative learning phenomena is that acquired conditioned responses are extinguished by presenting the CS without the US (e.g., Pavlov 1927 ).

In several animal preparations, extinction of conditioned responses after unreinforced CS presentations is not definitive because responses were found to recover after some time ( Robbins 1990 ; Rosas and Bouton 1996 ; Rescorla 1997a, 2001 ). Spontaneous recovery is the return of conditioned responses elicited by the CS after time passes following extinction, and is usually interpreted as the indication that during extinction, a transient inhibitory association superimposed on the CS-US association decreases conditioned responses without destroying the initial CS-US association.

The study of spontaneous recovery is thus particularly important in the understanding of associative learning and memory, because it can tell us how much of the CS-US association is preserved through extinction (Rescorla 1996, 1997a ). Honeybees ( Apis mellifera L.) can be trained to associate an odor CS with a sucrose US, by conditioning the proboscis extension response (PER; Kuwabara 1957 ; Vareschi 1971 ; Bitterman et al.1983 ).

When the antennae of a hungry bee are touched with sucrose solution, the animal reflexively extends its proboscis to suck the sucrose. Odors to the antennae do not usually release such a response in naive animals. If an odor is presented immediately before sucrose solution (forward pairing), an association is formed and the odor will subsequently release the PER in a following test.

This effect is clearly associative and involves classical conditioning ( Bitterman et al.1983 ). Thus, the odor can be viewed as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and sucrose solution as the reinforcing unconditioned stimulus (US). In this paradigm, high response levels are obtained already after a single conditioning trial, which allowed dissecting the time- and event-dependency of the olfactory memory.

Thus, at least five memory stages were described, which control performance within different time windows and are thought to depend on different neural substrates (different cells and/or molecular cascades) possibly in different brain structures (Menzel 1999, 2001 ). After a single conditioning trial, performance in response to the CS is high shortly (1-2 min) after conditioning, then decreases, showing a “dip” around 3 min, and is high again after 7 min, until about 1 d, when performance decays ( Fig.1A ).

The difference between classical and operant conditioning – Peggy Andover

Two memory stages are thought to take place: in the first minutes after conditioning, performance depends on short-term memory (STM), which is highly nonassociative (because of sensitization from the US). STM decays quickly, i.e., within the first 2 to 3 min. Model of olfactory memory phases in the honeybee (after Menzel 2001 ). The graphs (black lines) show the time course of performance after single-trial ( A ) or multiple-trial ( B ) PER conditioning. Gray lines indicate the different putative memory phases supporting performance at different times after conditioning.

( A ) After a single conditioning trial, the olfactory memory is thought to go through mainly two phases, an initial (highly nonassociative) short-term memory phase (STM, broken gray line), and a later appearing midterm memory (single-trial MTM, gray line), which disappears normally after ∼1 d. The transition between the two phases usually leads to a performance “dip” ∼3 min after conditioning.

( B ) Multiple conditioning trials induce high performance for several days (black line). After an initial short-term memory phase, memory consolidate into another, more resistant, midterm memory storage (multiple-trial MTM) and, in time, to two forms a long-term memory, one independent of protein synthesis (early LTM), the other critically depending on the synthesis of new proteins (late LTM).

  • After multiple conditioning trials, performance can be very high for several days or even several weeks ( Fig.1B ).
  • Four different memory forms, which are organized either sequentially or in parallel and can depend on different substrates from after single-trial conditioning, are formed.
  • After an initial STM phase (which may include two forms, early and late STM), consolidation leads to an MTM phase (multiple-trial MTM) that is characterized by a selective increase in Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) activity ( Grünbaum and Müller 1998 ).

As before, multiple-trial MTM decays in the range of 1 d. In the day’s range, performance is controlled by two parallel Long-Term Memory (LTM) phases. One early phase (eLTM) is protein-synthesis-independent, and is predominantly induced by massed training (short intertrial intervals, usually 1 min), whereas a late phase (lLTM) is critically dependent on protein synthesis and is only formed after spaced training (long intertrial intervals, usually 10 min).

Therefore, depending on the number and the distribution of associative events, multiple memory forms are formed: short forms depending on short-term cellular modifications, later forms depending on the production of new proteins. In this, the memory system of honeybees is similar, although in different time windows, to that of other animal models, for instance, Drosophila ( Heisenberg 2003 ) and vertebrates ( Rose and Stewart 1999 ; Izquierdo et al.2002 ).

In this context, one may ask whether extinction produces an additional inhibitory association superimposed on the existing CS-US association—and is thus independent of training variables—or if it actually provokes a decay of particular memory phases—in which case it should have a differential effect in different training conditions.

One way to understand the effect of extinction on established memories is to study spontaneous recovery. In the former case, spontaneous recovery should be found independent of the number of conditioning trials and of the intervals between conditioning and extinction. In the latter case, different levels of spontaneous recovery should be observed in different training conditions.

We addressed this question in the present work. In honeybees, Takeda ( 1961 ) was the first to observe a phenomenon akin to spontaneous recovery. Training bees with 10 conditioning trials on one day, he subjected them to 23 unreinforced trials with the CS on a second day, and reached complete extinction.

  • Takeda further presented the CS 32 times on a third day and on a fourth day.
  • Some responding was obtained on the third day, indicating that responses could recover after extinction.
  • Later on, Bitterman et al.
  • 1983 ) trained bees with five conditioning trials and presented the CS unreinforced in 10 extinction trials with 1-min ITIs (massed trials) throughout the procedure, except for a 35-min rest period between the fifth and sixth trial.

Although almost complete extinction was observed after five extinction trials, responses reached 70% again after the rest period, showing an important spontaneous recovery of conditioned responses. These two studies thus suggest that spontaneous recovery takes place in the honeybee.

  • However, until now, no study has been dedicated to this phenomenon, although it is of primary importance in the elucidation of the mechanisms of learning and memory.
  • In the present work, we sought to reproduce spontaneous recovery in controlled laboratory conditions, and addressed the dependency of this phenomenon on the training variables.

More precisely, we asked whether the time intervals during conditioning, extinction, or after extinction are important for the occurrence of spontaneous recovery. Moreover, we tested whether the number of conditioning and extinction trials of the procedure have an effect on the appearance and level of spontaneous recovery.

What is spontaneous recovery quizlet psychology?

Spontaneous Recovery: Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of a previously extinguished response. Generally, the response will be re-learned more quickly than it was initially learned. Spontaneous recovery follows a period of time in which the response did not occur.

Which of the following best describes spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning?

Psychology 1F03-Practice Questions Flashcards Dr. Brown has designed a new “special pill” that he believes will increase attention span. To test his hypothesis, Dr. Brown measures the attention span of 40 undergraduate students, then administers the special pill to all 40 participants before redoing the attention span task.

  • Which of the following statements regarding Dr.
  • Brown’s experiment is true?A) Practice effect is possible because participants repeat the same attention span task.
  • B) The between-subjects design of the experiment may have confounding variables.
  • C) There is no independent variable in Dr.
  • Brown’s experiment because all participants receive the “special pill”.

D) The independent variable is the participants’ performance on the attention span task. What does a p-value of 0.03 mean? A) The probability that replicating the experiment will provide the same results is 3% or less.B) The probability that a difference between experimental groups is due to chance is 3% or less.

  1. C) The probability that a difference between experimental groups is due to chance is 3% or more.
  2. D) The probability that the proposed hypothesis is incorrect is 3% or more.
  3. Which of the following is true regarding measures of central tendency?A) Measures of central tendency can tell us where our data set is centred, but cannot tell us how the data is spread around that centre.

B) Measures of central tendency can tell us how our data is spread around its centre, but this information is useless for statistical analysis. C) Measures of central tendency can tell us how our data is spread around its centre, but cannot tell us where our data set is centred.

  1. D) Measures of central tendency can tell us where our data set is centred, but this information is not useful for statistical analysis.
  2. Why does correlation not equal causation?A) Correlations can have non-causal explanations.
  3. B) Correlations cannot be explained by causal links.
  4. C) Correlations are found in experiments—only observational studies can demonstrate causality.

D) Correlations are positively or negatively related, whereas causations are only ever positive. Which of the following statements about experimental research is most correct? A) Data collection should be done by someone aware of the hypothesis and conditions to ensure it is done correctly.

  • B) Participants should be assigned to conditions according to criteria unrelated to the hypothesis, such as gender.C) Using a within-subject design may lead subjects to get better at the task the second time they performed it.
  • D) Finding an r coefficient of 0.9 indicates that that your independent variable had a strong effect on your dependent variable.

What is the difference between a within-subject design and between-subject design? A) A between-subject design has multiple IVs, while a within-subject design only has one IV.B) A between-subject design assigns different participants to each condition, while a within-subject design assigns the same participants to all conditions.

  1. C) A between-subject design uses a randomly selected sample, while a within-subject design does not.
  2. D) A between-subject design is a double-blind experiment, while a within-subject design is a blind experiment. Dr.
  3. Mika is investigating the relationship between amount of sleep and level of stress.
  4. She instructs ten males and ten females to record the number of hours of sleep each night for one month, and then records their perceived level of stress on a ten point scale.

According to the textbook, which of the following is an example of a binary variable? A) average duration of sleep over the entire month B) duration of sleep each nightC) sex of the participant D) perceived level of stress Emanuel is investigating the effects of caffeine on short-term memory.

Prior to recalling a list of random words, half his participants drink coffee and the other half drink water. According to the textbook, which of the following scenarios describes a type I error? A) All participants recalled the same number of words, which is likely due to participants with better short-term memory being assigned to the water group.

B) All participants recalled the same number of words, which is likely due to caffeine not having an effect on short-term memory.Incorrect ResponseC) Participants who consumed caffeine recalled more words, which is likely due to caffeine enhancing short-term memory.Correct AnswerD) Participants who consumed caffeine recalled more words, which is likely due to participants with better short-term memory being assigned to the caffeine group.

Anna routinely injects heroine in both her kitchen and her car. She tends to inject the heroine while listening to the radio after a long shift at work that finishes around midnight. Which of the following scenarios would lead to the greatest feeling of withdrawal due to classical conditioning? A) Anna spends the entire day in her kitchen baking several recipes for an upcoming office party while watching television.

B) Anna returns home from work one night and decides to make a pizza while listening to her favourite radio station. C) Anna encounters an individual injecting heroine while walking home from work one day. D) Anna spends the entire day driving around the city in her car listening to her favourite radio station.

B Following an intense injury caused by a baseball to the head, Nikki became scared of baseballs and refused to go back and play. Her fear then generalized to a wide variety of balls. Which of the following would be the best option for discrimination training? A) Get Nikki to play catch with a variety of balls at different distances but allow her to get hit softly by everything except for baseballs.

B) Get Nikki to play catch with a variety of balls and if she gets hit at all, reassure her that everything will be okay and nothing serious will happen. C) Get Nikki to play catch with baseballs at different distances but don’t allow any of them to hit her in the head.

D) Get Nikki to play catch with a variety of balls besides baseballs at different distances without them hitting her in the head. D Jane often wakes up irritated, so she sets her favorite song, Despacito, as her new alarm to make mornings happier. After a few weeks, she finds that she can no longer sit through the song without feeling extremely irritated.

How can we use classical conditioning to explain Jane’s situation? A) A contingency has formed between the US of Despacito and the CS of time of the day, such that whenever Jane hears the US, it elicits UR of irritation. B) A contingency has formed between the US of waking up and the CS of Despacito, such that whenever Jane hears the CS, it now elicits the CR of irritation.

  • C) A contingency has formed between the US of irritation and the CS of Despacito, such that whenever Jane hears the CS, it elicits the CR of irritation.
  • D) A contingency has formed between the CS of Despacito and the CR of irritation, such that whenever Jane hears the CS, it elicits CR of irritation.
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B Which of the following is the best example of discrimination? A) Matthew was bitten by a pit bull dog as a child and now has a severe fear of pit bull dogs, a moderate fear towards boxer dogs and bulldogs, and a mild fear towards all other dogs. B) Katie accidentally touched a burning hot pan and now refuses to use that brand of pans as a result of her fear towards them, but is not afraid of other pans or her stove.

C) Manesh was attacked by several bees and now has a severe fear of bees and a mild fear to all other insects, except he is no longer afraid of mosquitoes. D) Marta received an electric shock from the electrical outlet in her bedroom and now has a severe fear towards all electrical outlets, but does not fear power cords.

B Which of the following best describes spontaneous recovery? A) When spontaneous recovery occurs, this shows that extinction caused the original contingency to be unlearned. B) Spontaneous recovery occurs when the unconditioned stimulus is presented after extinction.

C) Spontaneous recovery shows that, after extinction, the original contingency is not unlearned. D) Generalization produces more robust spontaneous recovery than does extinction. C Why is discrimination important for animals? A) Discrimination is necessary to prevent costly responses to a variety of stimuli that are similar to the CS, but do not predict the presence of the US.

B) Discrimination is necessary for recognizing a wide variety of food sources. C) Discrimination helps decrease the number of CS- in the environment. D) Discrimination is needed to detect predators. A Which of the following best describes the process by which the conditioned stimulus is continuously presented without the unconditioned stimulus? A) Extinction.

B) Forgetting. C) Extinguishing. D) Inhibition. A Which of the following is true about classical conditioning? A) Individuals are classically conditioned to stimuli in their environment on a regular basis. B) It does not always require a conditioned stimulus. C) It does not happen naturally. D) It requires planned training with a conditioned stimulus in order to successfully elicit a conditioned response.

A Naomi has come to associate the sound of her boss’ feet stampeding by her desk with her getting in trouble for something she has done incorrectly, and she often responds by getting very nervous and sweaty. However, the next few times her boss comes stampeding by, she congratulates Naomi for her progress and now when she comes by, Naomi no longer gets nervous and sweaty but slightly happy.

  • According to the textbook, this scenario is best understood by which of the following? A) Reacquisition.
  • B) Higher Order Conditioning.
  • C) Inhibitory Conditioning.
  • D) Spontaneous Recovery.
  • C What novel finding did the Target Study on morphine situation specificity in Chapter 3 of the textbook contribute to the field of learning? A) Tolerance is enhanced with drug use regardless of environment.

B) Environmental stimuli associated with morphine administration leads to diminished drug effects. C) Environmental stimuli associated with morphine administration leads to enhanced drug effects. D) Morphine use significantly decreases pain when first administered, regardless of environment.

  1. B Which of the following is correct regarding Thorndike’s original “puzzle box” experiment? A) Thorndike hypothesized that the cat’s random behaviour will gradually decrease with more trials and it will eventually pull the rope right away.
  2. B) Thorndike hypothesized that the rope would always be pulled randomly with no change in any behaviour’s frequency.

C) Thorndike observed that the cat, after pulling the rope and receiving a reward once, pulled the rope on all subsequent trials. D) Thorndike observed that undesired and random behaviours gradually decreased in frequency after several trials. D Your manager recently cancelled free morning coffee after noticing that the majority of employees were spending too much time playing online games.

  • Additionally, those employees who exceeded expectations during regular work hours were not required to work overtime on weekends.
  • Which of the following two training procedures does this scenario best exemplify? A) Punishment training; Escape training B) Omission training; Escape training C) Punishment training; Reward training D) Omission training; Reward training B Which of the following best describes Thorndike’s process of how “stamping in” occurs? A) Responses to stimuli increase because of associations formed between stimuli.

B) Behaviours decrease when they are followed by reinforcement. C) Behaviours are learned when followed by a positive consequence. D) Involuntary responses to stimuli are learned because of associations formed between stimuli. C Audrey is learning to read and her parents give her a candy when she reads a full page properly.

Several months later, her parents are excited to see her progress, but are concerned she’s eating too much candy. They decide to give Audrey a candy every once in a while so that it works out to one candy on average every two days, which they feel is healthier. Which of the following reinforcement schedules are being used in this example? A) Fixed ratio followed by variable interval.

B) Variable ratio followed by fixed ratio. C) Fixed interval followed by variable interval. D) Variable ratio followed by fixed interval. A Which of the following is most correct regarding ratio strain? A) It is the ratio between number of responses and time on a cumulative record graph.

B) Ratio strain describes the ratio between time and reinforcement, at which the subject produces the highest response rate. C) Ratio strain is more likely to occur in a FR-100 schedule than a FR-10 schedule. D) It describes the lack of responses from the subject, as a result of inconsistent reinforcement schedule.

C Which of the following outlines a similarity between omission and escape training? A) Both omission and escape training involve the presentation of a reinforcer. B) Both omission and escape training serve to decrease a behaviour. C) Both omission and escape training involve the removal of a reinforcer.

  • D) Both omission and escape training serve to increase a behaviour.
  • C Which of the following statements regarding Thorndike’s puzzle box experiment is correct? A) Thorndike observed the number of desired behaviours decreased gradually after a number of trials.
  • B) Thorndike believed that once the cat learned to escape, it would pull the rope on all subsequent trials.

C) Thorndike initially believed that once the cat learned to escape, the number of random behaviours would gradually decrease. D) Thorndike observed that once the cat learned to escape, the cat pulled the rope immediately on all subsequent trials. C Which of the following best describes omission training? A) The removal of a positive reinforcer to stamp out a targeted behaviour.

  • B) The removal of a postive reinforcer to stamp in a targeted behaviour.
  • C) The presentation of a positive reinforcer to stamp in a targeted behaviour.
  • D) The presentation of a positive reinforcer to stamp out a targeted behaviour.
  • A According to the textbook, which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer? A) If Brandon can correctly identify five movies based on their trailer, the theatre is offering him a free general admission coupon.

B) Evan is told that he will receive a free bottle of Gatorade if he can run five kilometers straight. C) Every time a mouse presses a green button followed by a blue button, they are provided with a food reward. D) Jacob has a fear of snakes after being bit as a child, and when he encounters a snake while riding his bicycle, he develops a fear of bicycles.

  • A According to the textbook, which of the following regarding the Skinner box is true? A) The cumulative recorder’s results were not representative of the animals’ learning process.
  • B) It is less efficient at measuring operant conditioning than Thorndike’s puzzle box.
  • C) It requires that the animal be placed back into the box after each trial.

D) It has fewer constraints on the animal’s capability to respond than Thorndike’s puzzle box. D Which of the following scenarios best outlines deductive reasoning? A) Victor notices a couple in the park are not speaking to each other and concludes their relationship is on poor terms.

B) After returning to her house following a vacation, Lela notices the house is very messy and concludes that her husband must have been too busy to clean. C) Zack has been struggling with a complex engineering problem and wakes up one morning and the solution seems to pop into his head. D) Hilary believes driving on a stormy night puts her at risk so she decides to slow down to avoid an accident.

D Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies inductive reasoning? A) Darrel arrives at class to find the lights off and the room empty. He concludes that class must have been cancelled. B) Darrel knows that dark clouds coming his way are indicative of rain following shortly after.

He sees a number of dark clouds one morning and concludes that it will be a rainy day. C) Darrel stops by his colleague Braden’s new apartment after work. Knowing that Braden is messy and unorganized at work, Darrel expects that Braden’s apartment will be messy and unorganized. D) Darrel tells his son that all fruits grow on trees.

His son, knowing that an apple is a fruit, concludes that it must have come from a tree. A Which of the following accurately demonstrates the Flynn Effect? A) Once the IQ test has been corrected to have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, they are considered standardized.

  • These standardized IQ scores have been on the decline since 1932.
  • B) Despite no known reason for the changes, raw IQ scores obtained from IQ tests have been on the rise for the past several decades.
  • C) Despite no known reason for the changes, raw IQ scores obtained from IQ tests have been on the decline for the past several decades.

D) Once the IQ test has been corrected to have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, they are considered standardized. These standardized IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932. B Sandra thinks that she has developed a questionnaire that, if filled out honestly, will accurately determine if a given individual is suffering from clinical depression.

She tests by having a group of undergraduate students fill out the questionnaire once per week for two months, and finds that each student tends to score quite similarly to what they had scored in previous weeks. Sandra finds, however, that the score on her questionnaire is independent of whether or not an individual is clinically depressed.

Which of the following best describes the reliability and validity of Sandra’s measure? A) Sandra’s measure has weak reliability but strong validity. B) Sandra’s measure has strong reliability but weak validity. C) Sandra’s measure has strong reliability and strong validity.

D) Sandra’s measure has weak reliability and weak validity. B Which of the following would be difficult for somebody with functional fixedness? A) Locating several items in a search task B) Defining common functions for items C) Finding novel uses for everyday objects D) Completing novel problem-solving tasks C Which of the following options correctly describes how IQ scores are assigned? A) An IQ score of 130 is one standard deviation above the mean.

B) Your IQ is independent of how the rest of the population performs. C) The average IQ score is always 100. D) IQ tests are based on a standard parametric distribution. C At one stage in cognitive development, children learn that objects do not disappear if they are removed from sight.

What is this called? A) object permanence B) objectivism C) egocentrism D) conservation A Which of the following correctly describes the sensorimotor stage? A) Children are one stage away from being able to reason abstractly. B) Children will learn how to complete seriation tasks prior to exiting this stage C) Children will have learned object permanence prior to entering this stage.

D) Children learn they can meaningfully change their environment. D According to the Building Better Brains article, which of the following best characterizes the findings of the research testing fluid intelligence using the dual n-back test? A) Older adults showed the highest variability.

B) Older adults showed the lowest variability. C) Children showed the highest variability. D) Children showed the lowest variability. C According to the article Building Better Brains, which of the following correctly describes a 3-back working memory task? A) The participant is shown a shape in various positions and, at the end of the task, is asked to remember every third position the shape was in.

B) The participant must press a key whenever the shape is in the same position as it was three spots back in the series. C) The participant must press a key whenever the shape is in the same position as it was three spots into the task. D) The participant is shown a shape in various positions and must determine which subsequent option matches the third position the shape was in.

  1. B Which of the following characteristics of language can accurately be applied to the waggle dance? A) Arbitrary and productive.
  2. B) Arbitrary.
  3. C) Rule-governed.
  4. D) Rule-governed and arbitrary.
  5. C How many phonemes are in the word “telephone”? A) 7 B) 9 C) 6 D) 8 A Which of the following outlines the mechanism by which instrumental conditioning occurs in language, and which theory does it support? A) The physiological response elicited by the parents towards a baby saying a word acts as reinforcement for speaking words, supporting the innate mechanism theory.

B) The pleasure expressed by infants after they speak a word acts as reinforcement for speaking words, supporting the social learning theory. C) The chemical changes in the brain produced by Chomsky’s language acquisition device following a baby saying a word acts as reinforcement for speaking words, supporting the innate mechanism theory.

  1. D) The excitement expressed by the mother that occurs as a result of a baby saying a word acts as reinforcement for speaking words, supporting the social learning theory.
  2. D Which of the following is an example of an underextension A) Blake calls his mom “mommy”.
  3. He also calls his teacher, his aunt, and his older sister “mommy”.

B) Claire identifies red apples as apples. She does not identify green or yellow apples as apples. C) Sarah identifies her German Shepherd as a dog. She also identifies her neighbour’s Chihuahua as a dog. D) Devin has many dolls at home. He calls his Elmo doll “Elmo” and his Big Bird doll “Big Bird”.

  • B Which of the following statements about language development is most correct? A) The innate preference of infants to listen to speech over non-speech sounds may be evidence for the presence of a language acquisition device.
  • B) The presence of consistent grammar in the spontaneous sign language developed by congenitally deaf children is evidence for the social learning theory of language.

C) The innate tendency to continue producing language sounds after being rewarded by praise is evidence for the innate mechanism theory of language. D) The use of classical conditioning to pair the correct imitation of word sounds with praise is a mechanism proposed by the social learning theory of language.

  • A Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria for a true language? A) Regular B) Extensive C) Productive D) Arbitrary B Which of the following best describes the arbitrary nature of language? A) There is no indication of the meaning of a word given by its phonemes.
  • B) There is a structure to combinations of morphemes called syntax.

C) There are spontaneous productions of meaningful sentences by infants. D) There is no limitation to the number of combinations of words that can exist. A Which of the following is true regarding the nature of a phoneme? A) All languages use a universal set of phonemes but combine them in different ways.

B) There is no limit to the number of phonemes that can be used by a language. C) Phonemes are not shared between different languages. D) Depending on the language, only specific combinations of phonemes are allowed. D Kayla suffered from head trauma and damaged a small area in her left frontal lobe called Broca’s area.

Which of the following impairments is she most likely to experience? A) Kayla will once again be able to discriminate phonemes of foreign languages, even though this ability is typically lost early in life. B) Kayla will probably not be able to understand written language.

  1. C) Kayla will likely experience difficulty with fluent speech production.
  2. D) Kayla will probably not be able to understand what is being said to her.
  3. C According to the textbook, which of the following statements is true with regard to early language development? A) Using the word “dog” to label any animal with four legs is an underextension, and underextensions in language comprehension tend to persist longer than overextensions in language production.

B) Using the word “dog” to label any animal with four legs is an overextension, and overextensions in language production tend to persist longer than overextensions in language comprehension. C) Using the word “dog” to label any animal with four legs is an underextension, and underextensions in language production tend to persist longer than overextensions in language comprehension.

D) Using the word “dog” to label any animal with four legs is an overextension, and overextensions in language comprehension tend to persist longer than overextensions in language production. B Alice ran an experiment to test whether students who commute to school are more or less stressed than students who live on campus.

On average, students who commute scored lower on anxiety tests than students who lived on campus. Alice runs a t-test and obtains a p-value of 0.09. What can Alice conclude from these results? A) Alice’s results are statistically significant. She would have found these same results 91% of the time even if commuting did not affect stress levels in university students.

  1. B) Alice’s results are statistically insignificant.
  2. She would have found these same results 91% of the time even if commuting did not affect stress levels in university students.
  3. C) Alice’s results are statistically insignificant.
  4. She would have found these same results 9% of the time even if commuting did not affect stress levels in university students.

D) Alice’s results are statistically significant. She would have found these same results 9% of the time even if commuting did not affect stress levels in university students. C Which of the following is true regarding correlations? A) If the correlation is positive, the one variable must be causing the other variable to increase.

B) If two variables are correlated, then we know a third variable must be controlling both variables. C) If two variables are correlated, then the value of one variable can be predicted based on the value of the other variable. D) If two variables are correlated, then one variable must be causing change in the other variable.

C Which of the following could be plotted as a normal distribution? A) The total amount of vocabularly learned in each year of development B) The productivity of language C) The regularity of language D) The total amount of vocabulary Canadian 2-year-olds know D Cameron’s dog knows that the sound of Cameron’s car means Cameron is coming home.

  1. The dog doesn’t get excited anymore when it hears the sound of large trucks driving by.
  2. Which of the following is true of the dog’s contingency learning? A) Large trucks serve as extinction trials, and lessen the dog’s response to passing cars.
  3. B) Large trucks are a CS- for the dog because they don’t predict Cameron’s presence.

C) Cameron’s car acts as the US+, so the dog gets excited when hearing it. D) Cameron’s dog is learning to generalize the contingency to other cars that are similar to Cameron’s car. B Which of the following is true regarding therapy for phobias? A) Both implosive therapy and systematic desensitization involve training to remain calm when facing a feared object.

B) Systematic desensitization may be more traumatic for the individual than implosive therapy. C) Implosive therapy usually takes longer than systematic desensitization. D) Cognitive therapy begins with exposure to stimuli similar to the most feared stimulus. A Which of the following best describes generalization? A) Generalization produces a range of different responses to the original conditioned stimulus.

B) Generalization shifts the generalization gradient so that the strongest conditioned response occurs to a different conditioned stimulus. C) Generalization results in a conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. D) Generalization is similar to extinction because they both involve stimulus discrimination with the CS+ and CS-.

C According to the multi-store model of memory, memory items that are rehearsed are eventually transferred to long-term memory storage. This is akin to which phenomenon of classical conditioning? A) Stimulus Discrimination B) Acquisition C) Stimulus Generalization D) Spontaneous Recovery B While at the library, Sally eats 10 gummy bears after every 30 minutes of uninterrupted studying that she does.

Which schedule of reinforcement is Sally using? A) FI-30 B) FR-30 C) FR-10 D) FI-10 A Which of the following statements is true regarding the differences between the CS in Classical Conditioning and the SD in Instrumental Conditioning? A) Associations between behaviour and response can be lost through extinction in instrumental, but not classical conditioning.

  1. B) Associations between behaviour and response can be lost through extinction in classical, but not instrumental conditioning.
  2. C) The CS elicits a reflexive response, whereas the SD sets the occasion for a voluntary response.
  3. D) The CS elicits an automatic response, whereas the SD sets the occasion for an automatic response.

C Which of the following is true regarding escape training? A) There is a constant positive reinforcer that is only removed by an undesired behaviour. B) There is a constant negative reinforcer that can only be removed by the desired behaviour. C) A negative reinforcer is used to decrease the frequency of an undesired behaviour.

D) A positive reinforcer is used to increase the frequency of a desired behaviour. B Victoria wants to see if she can train her students to be 5 minutes early for class. She decides to give both of her tutorials a treat every time they come to class early. What is wrong with this experiment? A) She has no experimental group and training is prone to sponteous recovery.

B) She has no control group and training is prone to extinction. C) She has no control group and training is prone to spontaneous recovery. D) She has no experimental group and training is prone to extinction. B Jake and Charles both took the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale.

Their raw scores were 130 and 115, respectively. Given only these scores, which of the following statements must be true? A) Their raw scores are one standard deviation apart. B) Standardized IQ scores are steadily increasing. C) Jake has a higher standardized IQ score than Charles. D) Both have a raw IQ score that is above average.

C According to Piaget, which of the following abilities must be mastered in order to move from the Preoperational Stage to the Concrete Operational Stage? A) Understanding that, when my mother goes through a door, she has not disappeared. B) Understanding that my brother also has a sibling.

  • C) Understanding and enjoying Harry Potter.
  • D) Understanding the principles of multiplication.
  • B Which of the following is true according to Piaget’s stages of development and language development? A) Monica, who is three years old, should be able to understand that objects exist when they are out of sight as well as use over 850 words.
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B) Johnny, who is 5 years old, will understand abstract thoughts but will not be able to discriminate between all phonemes from new languages. C) Sam, who is 6 months old, will be able to imitate sounds and have mastered object permanence. D) Maya, who is 8 years old, is able to understand abstract concepts and can use over 2500 words.

A Which of the following sentences is semantically meaningful, but syntactically incorrect? A) The complex houses both soldiers and their families. B) The maple lampposts dreamed rightfully across red umbrellas. C) Moon shining the sky in brightly night-time yesterday. D) Sleeping didn’t forests whispered yellowing evening windily.

C Which of the following is true regarding human language development? A) Spontaneous sign creation by groups of deaf children is evidence against innate mechanism theory. B) Lack of language skills in children without exposure to language is evidence against innate mechanism theory.

  1. C) Underextensions and overextensions are evidence against social learning theory.
  2. D) Overextensions are characterized as children applying syntax rules too broadly.
  3. C Harry is trying (somewhat unethically) to train a young participant out of using so many overextensions in her speech.
  4. Which of the following classical conditioning set-ups would work the best to achieve Harry’s goal? A) Every time the participant doesn’t refer to apples as “fruit” (the CS), it’s paired with a spray of water in the face (the US) that elicits a discomfort response (the UR).

Eventually, the words themselves elicit the discomfort response (the CR). B) Every time the participant doesn’t refer to apples as “fruit” (the US), it’s paired with a spray of water in the face (the CS) that elicits a discomfort response (the CR). Eventually, the words themselves elicit the discomfort response (the UR).

  1. C) Every time the participant calls grapes, oranges, and pears by the catch-all word “apple” (the US), it’s paired with a spray of water in the face (the CS) that elicits a discomfort response (the CR).
  2. Eventually, the words themselves elicit the discomfort response (the UR).
  3. D) Every time the participant calls grapes, oranges, and pears by the catch-all word “apple” (the CS), it’s paired with a spray of water in the face (the US) that elicits a discomfort response (the UR).

Eventually, the words themselves elicit the discomfort response (the CR). D Assuming students are equally skilled in the course, according to the article “Strengthening the Student Toolbox”, which student will be most likely to receive the highest mark on a test? A) A student that re-read the text book 3 times.

  1. B) A student that focused on memorizing what they highlighted in their textbook.
  2. C) A student that used practice tests without their notes after reviewing the material.
  3. D) A student that used practice tests with their notes after reviewing the material.
  4. C Abid wants to prepare for an upcoming exam.
  5. Which of the following strategy should he use? A) Abid should mix the material from different units when he is studying to gain a deeper understanding.

B) He should study while simultaneously doing math problems; this challenge will allow for more efficient studying. C) Abid should re-write his notes several times in order to increase the fluency of the material. D) He should study for 12 hours the day before the exam; this way the material will be fresh in his memory for the exam.

  • A How does the Pomodoro technique optimize studying? A) The Pomodoro technique engages active memory in a way similar to retrieval practice.
  • B) The Pomodoro technique helps studiers implement effective repeated exposure.
  • C) The Pomodoro technique prevents studiers from ineffectively cramming material into one session.

D) The Pomodoro technique reduces the distractions associated with task switching. D Which of the following is true regarding the understanding of category membership in baboons? A) If trained, baboons are able to make both simple (e.g., “food” versus “non-food”) and abstract (e.g., “same” versus “different”) categorizations with 100% accuracy.

B) By the human definition of “categorization”, baboons are not able to classify objects. C) Baboons are able to categorize simple objects into abstract categories (e.g., “same” versus “different”) only with extensive training. D) Baboons are able to categorize simple objects into simple categories (e.g., “food” versus “non-food”), but are unable to categorize simple objects into abstract categories (e.g., “same” versus “different”), regardless of training.

C Which of the following is evidence in favour of the prototype theory? A) Category membership changes after short-term changes in experiences with category members. B) Ideal representations of categories change over time with changing experience of category members.

  1. C) Simple but abstract categories are easily defined in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria.
  2. D) Individuals from South America are faster to respond to rice as a staple meal item than to pasta.
  3. D Which of the following categorizations would be made most efficiently through prototype theory? A) A futon or hammock categorized as furniture.

B) A person being chased by a crowd categorized as a marathon. C) An individual who is smiling while crying categorized as proud. D) A soccer ball or basketball categorized as balls. D Which of the following outlines Dr. Brooks’ findings with respect to rules in categorization? A) Categorization is automatic and operates outside our awareness even for abstract and complex categories.

  • B) Rules can be constructed and are required to define even simple categories, such as fruit and furniture.
  • C) Rules for categories often lead to certain objects that belong to the category being omitted.
  • D) Categorization systems exist in animals, as observed through baboons placing objects into either food or non-food.

C Which of the following best describes a baboon’s categorization abilities? A) Baboons can categorize only simple categories. B) Baboons can categorize as well as humans. C) Baboons can categorize complex categories with high accuracy. D) Baboons do not have the ability to categorize.

C Which of the following statementsabout prototype theory is FALSE? A) A prototype describes the ideal or average member of a category. B) According to prototype theory, you categorize new apples by comparing them to all the prototypes you have stored for the category “apple”. C) A prototype describes an internal representation that can be compared to new stimuli in order to categorize them.

D) Prototypes are heavily dependent upon the experiences of an individual. B Which of the following, if true, would contradict the assumptions of prototype theory? Select the best answer A) Prototypes can change rapidly over time. B) We can think of more than one item that belongs to a category.

C) We tend to think of the same item every time we are asked about a specific category. D) Our rules for categories can constantly change. A Which of the following does not correctly describe a function of categorization? A) It allows you to compare similar situations to better choose your actions. B) It allows you to make sense of what others are doing and respond accordingly.

C) It allows you to treat objects that appear the same as different. D) It allows you to understand the types of objects another person is talking about. C Which of the following best explains why the statement, ‘the organization of the brain has to be understood in terms of our evolutionary history,’ occurs in the article “Wired for Categorization”? A) The results discussed in the article suggest that the visual cortex’s organization around categories of knowledge is similar in sighted people and in individuals who were born blind.

  1. B) The results discussed in the article support the long-held notion that categorization processes exist solely as the result of learning to recognize the differences in visual stimuli.
  2. C) The results discussed in the article imply that the reason our brains are innately structured for categorization is because it would have been advantageous to our survival in the past.

D) The results discussed in the article indicate that the gradual process of learning to differentiate between, say, a bear and a tree, would have provided us with some survival benefit in the past. C In the article “Wired for Categorization”, what did the authors come to conclude? A) There is an innate basis for the development of differential processing areas for threatening and non-threatening stimuli.

B) Various sensory input and experience forms the basis of differential animate and inanimate object processing. C) Unlike previous beliefs claimed, two separate processing areas for animate and inanimate objects do not actually exist. D) Proper early visual input is not enough to be able to explain differential processing of animate and inanimate objects.

D While attending the Grammys, Justin Bieber is deeply engrossed in conversation with his girlfriend. Suddenly, he hears his name announced for winning Best Album, and he turns away from his girlfriend to walk up and accept his award. What theory of attention can best account for this? A) Broadbent’s model as it predicts the announcement of Justin Bieber’s name will be processed as long as it has the proper physical characteristics.

  1. B) Triesman’s model as it predicts the announcement of Justin Bieber’s name will first be processed based on its physical characteristics, and then on its semantic relevance.
  2. C) The spotlight model as it predicts the announcement of Justin Bieber’s name will be processed as long as the spotlight shifts from his girlfriend to the announcer fast enough.

D) Broadbent’s model as it predicts that as long as Justin Bieber has been conditioned to respond to his own name, the announcement of his name will capture his attention. B In which of the following grids would finding a blue triangle take the longest? A) A grid of green squares B) A grid of green squares and green triangles C) A grid of green triangles D) A grid of blue squares and green triangles D You are completing the stroop task, but the words are in a foreign language.

Which of the following describes how your accuracy will change relative to doing the stroop task with english words? A) Your accuracy depending on the number of congruent vs. incongruent letter/color combinations B) You will complete the task less accurately than usual. C) Your performance will not change.

D) You will complete the task more accurately than usual. D In which of the following would it take participants the longest to find the target? A) If participants are required to find a red triangle among 70 purple and blue triangles. B) If participants are required to find a green circle among 150 blue and yellow circles.

  • C) If participants are required to find a blue square among 70 blue triangles and green squares.
  • D) If participants are required to find a red triangle among 150 red squares.
  • C Which of the following is a difference between Triesman’s dual filter model and Broadbent’s single filter model? A) Triesman’s model has a physical filter, while Broadbent’s does not B) Triesman’s model has a semantic filter, while Broadbent’s does not C) Broadbent’s model has a physical filter, while Triesman’s does not D) Broadbent’s model has a semantic filter, while Triesman’s does not B Which of the following events during the stroop task would lead to the strongest stroop effect? A) A congruent trial following a series of alternating congruent and incongruent trials B) Several congruent trials followed by an incongruent trial.

C) Several incongruent trials followed by a congruent trial. D) An incongruent trial followed by another incongruent trial. B Which of the following describes the processing of objects within our attentional spotlight? A) They are processed faster and with lower accuracy.

  1. B) They are processed slower and with higher accuracy.
  2. C) They are processed slower and with lower accuracy.
  3. D) They are processed faster and with higher accuracy.
  4. D Why do subjects experience the stroop effect? A) The automatic process of word reading is difficult to ignore B) The controlled process of colour identification is difficult to ignore C) The automatic process of colour identification is difficult to ignore D) The controlled process of word reading is difficult to ignore A According to the textbook, what role does a ‘bottleneck’ play in models of attention? A) The bottleneck directs the spotlight away from uninteresting stimuli.

B) The bottleneck selects which information can pass through the attentional filter. C) The bottleneck focuses the spotlight on stimuli of interest. D) The bottleneck concentrates the filter on physical characteristics of incoming stimuli. B According to the textbook, which model of attention cannot explain how memory might be influenced by unattended information? A) Attenuation theory B) Early-selection theory C) Triesman’s dual filter theory D) Late-selection theory B If Leonard were to study for his English test in the library, which of the following situations will provide him with the FEWEST cues for retrieving information during his test written in a classroom? A) Leonard is allowed to bring his library chair into the exam room.

B) The font on Leonard’s test matches the font in his notes. C) Leonard sits in the same spot where he wrote his math test. D) While writing his test, Leonard imagines he is in the library. C Which of the following would be most effective at manipulating the serial position curve? A) Presentation of a distractor following the encoding phase will conserve the shape of the curve, but equally decrease the recall of all words.

B) Presentation of a distractor following the encoding phase will decrease the recall of words presented at the end of the list. C) Increasing the list size will diminish the primacy effect, but not the recency effect. D) Increasing presentation time increases recall of all the words, so the curve becomes flat.

B How do we best explain the occurrence of false memories? A) Through our inability to encode all information properly at the time of the memory due to an overload of information in our environment, resulting in incomplete recall. B) Through our frequent inability to tell the difference between imagined and real events that took place at approximately the same time.

C) Through our high susceptibility to believing the recount of past events by other individuals. D) Through the reconstructive nature of memory and the high likelihood that new information can be incorporated during recall. D Erica needs to study for her cumulative weekly psychology quizzes, but is petrified at the amount of information she has to know.

  • As a psychologist expert in memory, what do you recommend she do when studying? A) Studying in a different room than the one in which she will do her quiz.
  • B) Combine as much information as she can in fewer than nine chunks.
  • C) Using deep processing mnemonics.
  • D) Rehearse repeatedly to ensure everything is transferred to her long-term memory.

C What is the relationship between the storage and retrieval stage of memory? A) Retrieval and storage do not influence one another. B) Retrieval is successful only when it occurs in a similar state as storage. C) Retrieval is optimal under conditions that closely match the conditions of storage.

  • D) Retrieval is only influenced by storage for short term memories.
  • C Which of the following is NOT a function of elaborative rehearsal and frequent review? A) Facilitated transfer of information into long-term memory B) A slower forgetting curve C) Longer retention in short term-memory D) Increased fluency C Which is the best description of the “becoming famous overnight” experiment? A) Those who completed the pronunciation task 24 hours before the fame-rating task attributed the feeling of fluency to fame.

B) Those who completed the pronunciation task 24 hours before the fame rating task experienced the greatest processing fluency. C) Those who completed the pronunciation task immediately before the fame-rating task attributed the feeling of fluency to fame.

D) Those who completed the pronunciation task 24 hours before the fame rating task did not experience processing fluency. A Which of the following is NOT typically used in basic memory experiments? A) A retrieval phase, where subjects are tested on their memory for items presented during the encoding phase.

B) A control group that memorizes a different list of items during the encoding phase. C) An encoding phase, where the subjects memorizes a list of items, words, or pictures. D) An experimental group that memorizes a list of items during the encoding phase.

  1. B According to your textbook, which of the following is true of the self-referent effect? The self-referent effect is a mnemonic strategy that suggests that encoding is enriched by memorizing information according to self, meaning, rhyme, or case.
  2. Personal information is stored in a different brain area than long-term memory, suggesting that personal information isn’t helpful in organizing new information being encoded.

Information that pertains to the self can be classified as declarative memory, which is encoded in long-term memory more easily that information pertaining to something or somebody else. Remembering information as it relates to yourself, rather than something or somebody else, seems to encode information at the deepest level of processing.

D Jasmine has a skiing accident and suffers minor brain trauma. Upon gaining consciousness, she does not have any memory loss except for what she saw immediately before and during her collision. Despite this, she remembers vividly the sound of her body colliding with a hard surface. According to the textbook, which short-term memory system malfunction caused the specific visual amnesia? A) Working memory B) Iconic memory C) Central executive D) Phonological loop B Which attribution styles may lead to the self-serving bias? A) Fundamental Attribution Error and representativeness heuristic.

B) Fundamental Attribution Error and actor-observer bias. C) Representativeness heuristic and actor-observer bias. D) Actor observer bias and availability heuristic. B Which example of a cognitive shortcut best represents an application of the representative heuristic while forming impressions? A) Every time Charles visits, Eric’s room is a mess; he concludes that Eric must be too busy to complete chores.

  • B) Pietro quickly loses to Scott in an arm wrestle.
  • He infers that Scott is strong, and must train regularly.
  • C) After Jean beat Logan in their first chess game, he flipped the board.
  • She realizes that Logan must be a sore loser.
  • D) Raven learns that Hank is a scientist, so she decides that Hank likely does not have time to grab coffee with her.

D Irina is in an argument with her father about why she got a speeding ticket in downtown Toronto the night before. Which of the following best demonstrates the fundamental attribution error? A) Irina’s father does not get angry with her, assuming that she was speeding for a good reason.

B) Irina’s father argues that this ticket shows how irresponsible of a driver she always is, and takes the car keys from her. C) Irina’s father does not get angry with her, stating that even he has received speeding tickets. D) Irina argues that this is the only time she’s been caught for speeding, and that she can usually get away with it.

B Which scenario best exemplifies the representativeness heuristic? A) Your boss often yells at you on Monday morning; you assume it’s because your boss has a grouchy diposition when tired. B) Your assistant frequently stays on top of deadlines and work projects; you assume it’s because they are seeking career advancement.

C) Your coworker always tells funny stories at the water cooler; you assume it’s because they are passionate about networking. D) Your accountant is several minutes early to a corporate meeting; you assume it’s because accountants are organized and prompt. D Which of the following best describes the Fundamental Attribution Error? A) When explaining our own negative behaviour, we usually attribute the behaviour to external factors rather than ourselves.

B) When explaining someone else’s negative behaviour, people usually attribute the behaviour to the person rather than to external factors. C) When explaining someone else’s negative behaviour, people usually attribute the behaviour to external factors rather than to the person.

D) When explaining our own negative behaviour, we usually attribute the behaviour to ourselves rather than to external factors. B According to Covariation Theory, what do people assess when trying to explain someone’s behaviour? A) If the person repeatedly does the same behavior in the given situation, if others behave similarly in the given situation, and if he behaves differently in different situations.

B) If the person repeatedly does the same behavior, if he behaves differently in different situations, and the motive behind the behaviour. C) If the behavior is intentional and predictable, and what the motive behind it is. D) If the behavior is intentional, predictable, and if others behave differently in different situations.

  1. A Which image of themselves, mirrored or corrected, would the average individual rate as more attractive and why? A) Corrected image because we have a closer proximity to a corrected image than to our reflection.
  2. B) Mirror image because there is a tendency to be more positive to things that are more familiar.
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C) Corrected image because that is how we naturally perceive ourselves on a daily basis. D) Mirror image because others’ opinions influence what we view as attractive and that is what they see more. B Which of the following people would Bob have the highest fondness towards? A) Tim, who used to be neutral about Bob, but now likes him.

  1. B) Mike, who used to dislike Bob, but now likes him.
  2. C) Jim, who has always liked Bob.
  3. D) Don, who used to dislike Bob, but is now neutral about him.
  4. B According to the textbook, regardless of whether a student was told a debater chose their stance or was given that side of the argument, students believed their arguments were reflective of how the debater truly felt.

What kind of attribution is being made here? A) Fundamental Attribution Error B) Situational attributions because the student is the actor C) Self-Serving Bias D) Situational attributions because the student is the observer A According to the textbook, what role does the availability heuristic play in forming stereotypes? A) By overestimating the number of people who share our beliefs of a certain group, we reinforce those stereotypes to be more true than they are.

  • B) Drawing conclusions about a group of individuals because of the group of people they represent.
  • C) By judging the behavior of a sample of people because of the similarities to the population they are associated with.
  • D) Any experience that fits the stereotype is readily accessible and continuously reinforces the stereotype.

D During a protest, Luke gives a very enthusiastic speech that provokes the individuals at the protest to become violent and begin vandalizing property. Which of the following outlines the best method for stopping this behaviour according to groupthink? A) Luke should call the police to provide the group with a second chance at protesting.

  1. B) Luke should give another speech to reduce the motivation and therefore diminish the violent behaviour of the group.
  2. C) Luke should split the group up into smaller groups and ask them to consider other people’s feelings before returning to protest.
  3. D) Luke should inform the group that collective ignorance will not help their cause, and that it is everyone’s responsibility to act in a professional manner.

C Heratio has just submitted a film to be entered into a film contest. After watching the film, but before announcing their decision, the judges unanimously felt that Heratio’s was the worst of all the films submitted. To ensure that he wins the contest, Heratio decides to bribe some of the judges to vote for his film.

  • He begins by paying two judges $100 but quickly runs out of cash and only has enough to pay a third judge $2.
  • Which of the following is likely to occur? A) After the contest, the judge paid $2 will most likely believe that Heratio’s movie was actually the best.
  • B) After the contest, judges paid $100 will most likely believe that Heratio’s movie was actually the best.

C) After the contest, the judges paid $100 will have a higher opinion of Heratio’s film than the judge paid $2. D) The judges paid $100 will be more effective at convincing the other judges that Heratio’s movie was the best. A Dr. Dawn Ald is running an experiment to examine the extent that a “teacher” will harm a “learner” through electric shock when she orders it.

Which of the following will Dr. Dawn Ald expect? A) The extent of harm will increase if she presents herself as “Dawn” instead of “Dr. Ald”. B) The extent of harm increase based on how well maintained she keeps the experiment room. C) The extent of harm depends on how authoritative the “learner” appears to the “teacher”.

D) The extent of harm is independent of Dr. Ald being in the room. B Melaina is giving a powerpoint presentation on the paper she just published in an attempt to obtain a research grant. The granting board consists of professors and medical professionals.

  1. How should she give her talk in order to persuade the board to reward her with the grant? A) Melaina should be sure to wear her best dress and makeup.
  2. B) Melaina should focus on her ability to clearly communicate her ideas.
  3. C) Melaina should provide ample research to support her claims.
  4. D) Melaina should ensure that her central message is easy to understand.

C Which of the following combination of phenomena is necessary for the bystander effect to occur? A) Collective ignorance and diffusion of responsibility. B) Diffusion of responsibility and normative function. C) Collective ignorance and comparative function.

  1. D) Comparative function and normative function.
  2. A Which of the following is one of the differences between collective ignorance and diffusion of responsibility? A) Diffusion of responsibility requires an ambiguous situation, while collective ignorance does not.
  3. B) Collective ignorance decreases as the crowd gets bigger, while diffusion of responsibility increases.

C) Collective ignorance increases as the crowd gets bigger, while diffusion of responsibility decreases. D) Collective ignorance requires an ambiguous situation, while diffusion of responsibility does not. D Which of the following best describes the effect of deindividuation on behaviour? A) It decreases group-polarization since the person finds no need to conform.

  • B) It leads to a change in attitudes due to cognitive dissonance.
  • C) It increases conformity through the comparative function.
  • D) It can lead to unwanted behaviours because it removes a person’s sense of responsibility.
  • D What was the significance of the Muzafer Sherif experiment? A) He was able to successfully trick people into thinking the dot had actually moved.

B) Estimations of the fake distance moved by the dot will diverge over the course of days. C) He was able to successfully trick people into thinking the dot had moved when they were in groups. D) Estimations of the fake distance moved by the dot will converge over the course of days.

  • D According to group polarization as discussed in the textbook, in which of the following situations might a group decision be riskier than those of the individuals? A) One individual’s decision is extremely risky.
  • B) The individuals’ initial decisions are generally reserved.
  • C) The individuals’ initial decisions are somewhat risky.

D) None of the individual decisions are cautious or risky. C According to the textbook, if Stanley Milgram’s experiment was repeated, which of the following would be an accurate estimate of the percentage of individuals that would see the experiment through to its conclusion based on what happened in the original? A) 25% B) 60% C) 1% D) 100% B : Psychology 1F03-Practice Questions Flashcards

What is acquisition vs extinction vs spontaneous recovery?

The Persistence and Extinction of Conditioning – After he had demonstrated that learning could occur through association, Pavlov moved on to study the variables that influenced the strength and the persistence of conditioning. In some studies, after the conditioning had taken place, Pavlov presented the sound repeatedly but without presenting the food afterward.

Figure 7.4 “Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery” shows what happened. As you can see, after the intial acquisition (learning) phase in which the conditioning occurred, when the CS was then presented alone, the behavior rapidly decreased—the dogs salivated less and less to the sound, and eventually the sound did not elicit salivation at all.

Extinction refers to the reduction in responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus, Figure 7.4 Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery What Is Spontaneous Recovery In Psychology Acquisition: The CS and the US are repeatedly paired together and behavior increases. Extinction: The CS is repeatedly presented alone, and the behavior slowly decreases. Spontaneous recovery: After a pause, when the CS is again presented alone, the behavior may again occur and then again show extinction.

  • Although at the end of the first extinction period the CS was no longer producing salivation, the effects of conditioning had not entirely disappeared.
  • Pavlov found that, after a pause, sounding the tone again elicited salivation, although to a lesser extent than before extinction took place.
  • The increase in responding to the CS following a pause after extinction is known as spontaneous recovery,

When Pavlov again presented the CS alone, the behavior again showed extinction until it disappeared again. Although the behavior has disappeared, extinction is never complete. If conditioning is again attempted, the animal will learn the new associations much faster than it did the first time.

  1. Pavlov also experimented with presenting new stimuli that were similar, but not identical to, the original conditioned stimulus.
  2. For instance, if the dog had been conditioned to being scratched before the food arrived, the stimulus would be changed to being rubbed rather than scratched.
  3. He found that the dogs also salivated upon experiencing the similar stimulus, a process known as generalization,

Generalization refers to the tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus, The ability to generalize has important evolutionary significance. If we eat some red berries and they make us sick, it would be a good idea to think twice before we eat some purple berries.

Although the berries are not exactly the same, they nevertheless are similar and may have the same negative properties. Lewicki (1985) conducted research that demonstrated the influence of stimulus generalization and how quickly and easily it can happen. In his experiment, high school students first had a brief interaction with a female experimenter who had short hair and glasses.

The study was set up so that the students had to ask the experimenter a question, and (according to random assignment) the experimenter responded either in a negative way or a neutral way toward the students. Then the students were told to go into a second room in which two experimenters were present, and to approach either one of them.

However, the researchers arranged it so that one of the two experimenters looked a lot like the original experimenter, while the other one did not (she had longer hair and no glasses). The students were significantly more likely to avoid the experimenter who looked like the earlier experimenter when that experimenter had been negative to them than when she had treated them more neutrally.

The participants showed stimulus generalization such that the new, similar-looking experimenter created the same negative response in the participants as had the experimenter in the prior session. The flip side of generalization is discrimination — the tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical,

Pavlov’s dogs quickly learned, for example, to salivate when they heard the specific tone that had preceded food, but not upon hearing similar tones that had never been associated with food. Discrimination is also useful—if we do try the purple berries, and if they do not make us sick, we will be able to make the distinction in the future.

And we can learn that although the two people in our class, Courtney and Sarah, may look a lot alike, they are nevertheless different people with different personalities. In some cases, an existing conditioned stimulus can serve as an unconditioned stimulus for a pairing with a new conditioned stimulus —a process known as second-order conditioning,

  • In one of Pavlov’s studies, for instance, he first conditioned the dogs to salivate to a sound, and then repeatedly paired a new CS, a black square, with the sound.
  • Eventually he found that the dogs would salivate at the sight of the black square alone, even though it had never been directly associated with the food.

Secondary conditioners in everyday life include our attractions to things that stand for or remind us of something else, such as when we feel good on a Friday because it has become associated with the paycheck that we receive on that day, which itself is a conditioned stimulus for the pleasures that the paycheck buys us.

Is spontaneous recovery permanent?

Abstract – Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes.

  • A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by extinction, most of which have implications for the nature of spontaneous recovery.
  • However, despite the centrality of the notion of spontaneous recovery to the understanding of extinction, the empirical literature on its determinants is relatively sparse and quite mixed.

Its very ubiquity suggests that spontaneous recovery has multiple sources. Experimental extinction is one of the fundamental observations of Pavlovian conditioning. Just as the arranging of a positive relation between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) produces acquisition of conditioned responding, breaking that relation produces extinction of that responding.

However, similar to many terms in the behavioral sciences, the word “extinction” is used in at least three different senses: as a procedure, as a result, and as an explanation. If we are to understand extinction experiments, it is extremely important that we keep these senses distinct from each other.

One use of the term is as an experimental procedure or independent variable under the control of the experimenter, as when one says, “Following learning, we subjected the animal to an extinction procedure.” Most frequently, this is meant to refer to a procedure in which the original conditions of learning are disrupted.

  • The most common extinction procedure consists of presenting a stimulus alone, so that it now fails to signal the outcome.
  • However, other procedures, such as retaining the US but arranging for it to be independent of the CS are also available and of interest (see Rescorla 2001a ).
  • Another use of the term is as an experimental result or dependent variable under the control of the animal, as when one says, “When the stimulus was presented alone, the behavior extinguished.” The prototypical example is one in which responding that was established by training deteriorates, often to a level such as that prior to learning.

A third use of the term extinction is as a process or intervening variable that is intended to provide an explanation, as when one says, “When we arranged for the stimulus to be presented alone, the behavior deteriorated because of extinction.” Normally, it is this process that is of interest.

  1. We would like to understand the basis of the change in behavior resulting from the change in procedure, whether that understanding is achieved at a conceptual or a neural level.
  2. Consequently, throughout this article the term extinction will refer to the learning process inferred when the procedure produces a particular result.

When there is the possibility of misunderstanding, the phrase “extinction process” will be used. Because interest primarily centers on the learning process that occurs as a result of an extinction procedure, it is important to separate that learning from a wide variety of other effects that govern performance.

  1. The issue here is analogous to that of understanding the learning that occurs during an acquisition procedure.
  2. Elsewhere we have argued that the measurement of learning demands attention to two points in time: t1, during which the opportunity to learn is given, and then a separate t2, during which an assessment is made of that learning (see Rescorla and Holland 1976 ; Rescorla 1988 ).

The comparison that indicates that learning has occurred is that between two animals (or two stimuli or responses) given a common t2 test following different opportunities for learning at t1. This comparison is superior to the common alternative of examining responding during t1, at which the animals are receiving different learning treatments.

  • Data taken during t1 necessarily confound the differences in the current circumstances under which learning is assessed with differences in the learning that prior treatments might have produced.
  • We have argued that for this reason acquisition curves are in fact deeply flawed as a way to measure learning.

A similar point applies to the learning that occurs in extinction. In this case, we need to administer a common test for stimuli or animals given different extinction experiences, as indicated in the first portion of Figure 1, In the simplest case, we can compare responding to two stimuli (S1 and S2) at a common t2 after both have had the same initial acquisition but then differ in whether or not they were given extinction at t1.

  1. Differences in t2 test performance would then index the differences in learning that occurred at t1.
  2. Clearly, comparisons between stimuli during the t1 extinction experience are of limited value because any differences might be the product of the current conditions of testing rather than of the memory for the learning that has occurred.

That is, extinction curves are of very limited use in understanding the underlying process. Figure 1 Experimental designs for the study of extinction and spontaneous recovery. ( A ) A recommended procedure for studying extinction, in which the critical comparison is responding to S1 and S2 at a common test time when the two stimuli differ in their extinction history.

B ) The design in which spontaneous recovery is sometimes inferred from the greater responding to S1 during test than during extinction. ( C ) A better spontaneous recovery design in which S1 and S2 are both trained and extinction, but then tested for recovery after different time periods. ( D ) An alternative design in which S1 and S2 are tested in a common test session, despite different times between extinction and test.

In this context, the phenomenon of spontaneous recovery has a complex role. That phenomenon suggests that the results that we obtain in a t2 assessment may be quite different depending on the length of time that intervenes between the t1 extinction experience and the t2 test.

It has been known since Pavlov’s ( 1927 ) early experiments that the loss of behavior that results from presenting the stimulus alone at t1 is not entirely permanent. Rather, with the passage of time following nonreinforcement, there is some “spontaneous recovery” of the initially learned behavior. Introducing greater time delays between t1 extinction treatment and t2 test provides the opportunity for greater spontaneous recovery.

At minimum, the phenomenon of spontaneous recovery provides some information about what process fails to account for the loss of behavior when an extinction procedure is conducted. It suggests that the loss does not simply involve the removal of what was learned in acquisition.

As Pavlov noted, if an extinction procedure had erased the acquisition learning, then there would be no basis for behavior to return with time. It suggests that instead something happens during the extinction procedure that temporarily suppresses performance while leaving some of the initial learning in place.

Of course, the finding of spontaneous recovery does not imply that there is no removal of the initial learning or even that there was any learning during extinction. It only implies that some of the initial learning survives an extinction procedure. The finding of spontaneous recovery may also be taken as providing some information on the nature of the processes that suppress behavior.

  • If one believes, as Pavlov did, that the return of behavior after nonreinforcement represents the loss of a learning process that occurred during the extinction procedure, it suggests that this learning is malleable, changing with time.
  • That is, it suggests that one property of the extinction mechanism is its relatively lower stability with time.

For both of these reasons, many have hoped to learn something about the processes underlying performance loss in extinction by an investigation of spontaneous recovery. Although there have been substantial advances in the neurobiological study of extinction in the last few years (for reviews, see Myers and Davis 2002 ; Delamater 2004 ), almost all studies of spontaneous recovery have been at the purely behavioral level.

What is a real life example of extinction in psychology?

What could cause a person or animal to stop engaging in a previously conditioned behavior? Extinction is one explanation. In psychology, extinction refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing.

What are the three types of recovery?

Self-recovery, Like-recovery, and Dedicated-recovery.

Which is an example of recovery?

Overcoming or managing one’s disease(s) or symptoms—for example, abstaining from use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-prescribed medications if one has an addiction problem — and for everyone in recovery, making informed, healthy choices that support physical and emotional wellbeing.

What is a real life example of extinction in psychology?

What could cause a person or animal to stop engaging in a previously conditioned behavior? Extinction is one explanation. In psychology, extinction refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing.

What is the difference between spontaneous recovery and response burst?

Spontaneous recovery vs extinction burst – Spontaneous recovery is the return of extinguished behavior after extinction has passed for a period of time. Some people confuse this relapse effect with extinction bursts. The difference between spontaneous recovery and extinction burst is that spontaneous recovery is a complete return after the disappearance of a behavior while extinction burst is a temporary increase of behavior that is being extinct ​4​,

What is an example of reinstatement in psychology?

The return of a response to an extinguished conditioned stimulus due to exposure to an unconditioned stimulus. For example, a person who gets a headache from using earbuds may develop an aversion to using them.