What Is The Future Of Psychology Likely To Hold?

What Is The Future Of Psychology Likely To Hold
Job outlook – Psychology is among the fastest growing career areas. While job prospects for psychologists and psychiatrists have always been strong, what we’re seeing is an increase in training and jobs for allied mental health roles and support roles, such as social workers, mental health aids, client support workers and counsellors.

What will be the future of psychology?

Clinical Psychologists will Work in Primary Health Care – As awareness around the importance of mental health continues to increase, it will become more normal to see clinical psychologists in traditional health care settings. “I would actually take it further than just working in primary health care,” Dr.

  • Luczynski says.
  • Why can’t clinical psychologists be primary health care physicians? In other words, if you are ill then you can call your psychologist first who can refer you to a specialist from there.” According to Dr.
  • Luczynski, some estimates say that nearly 50 percent of the issues people are suffering from in primary care offices are emotional or psychological problems.

“These are issues like depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia,” he says. “Or, on the other end of it, they may have issues related to addiction like alcohol abuse, drug abuse, or eating disorders. All of this comes back to which role psychologists should be playing and what the future of health care looks like.” Dr.

  • Luczynski also points to medical cost offset research, some of which has found that if people have access to good mental health treatments, their utilization of other medical services is reduced.
  • Think about someone who struggles with obesity and elects for mental health treatment instead of bypass surgery,” he says.

“It’s an example of expensive or costly procedures that can often be handled in a more cost-effective manner.”

Does psychology have a good future?

9. Great career prospects – Psychology is first and foremost a vocation. But that doesn’t mean your studies won’t also earn you a good living. If you want to practice as a psychologist, you will have to take specialized training (usually at Master’s level) and become a counselling psychologist or a psychotherapist.

Depending on your specialization you can also work as clinical psychologists in hospitals or clinics, evaluating and giving tests to patients in addition to regular sessions, facilitating group therapy, couples therapy, child therapist, individual therapy (one-on-one), therapy using play methods or expressive methods like body movement, and much more.

As a counselling psychologist or psychotherapist, you can work as your own boss, or as part of a team, or join an NGO and be involved in projects that support the mental health of your community. There is a lot of room for creativity and further development.

Which of the following are likely trends in the future of psychology?

The following trend seems likely to occur regarding psychology’s future: Psychology will become increasingly specialized and new perspectives will evolve. The evolving sophistication of neuroscientific approaches is likely to have an increasing influence over other branches of psychology.

What is the future of psychology 21st century?

The 21st-century sees psychology moving into the cognitive realm, where there is an increased acceptance of rational thinking, instead of results from empirical studies alone. The future of psychology includes applications in all areas, some examples are consumer research, the legal system, and even politics.

How will technology change psychology in the future?

What is the future of technology in psychology? – While it’s difficult to predict just where digital and information technology will take psychology in the years to come, paradigms are already shifting. Some experts believe that technology will likely support new tools for interventions and well-being measurements within the field.

Why psychology is important for the future?

The Importance of Psychology in Today’s Careers What Is The Future Of Psychology Likely To Hold Why should you study psychology? Can studying psychology help you in everyday life? Absolutely. Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. There are plenty of great reasons to learn about psychology, even if you don’t plan to become a psychology major or work in a psychology-related profession.

  1. Psychology is all around you and touches on every aspect of your life! Who you are now, how you will be in the future, and how you interact with family, friends, and strangers are all things that psychology can help you better understand.
  2. How Does Psychology Help People? Studying psychology, even in its online mode, gives you an edge when it comes to interactions with friends, family, co-workers, employers, and even in romantic relationships.

You’re more likely to achieve harmony and mutual satisfaction. Essentially, psychology helps people in large part because it can explain why people act the way they do. With this kind of professional insight, a psychologist can help people improve their decision-making, stress management, and behavior based on understanding past behavior to better predict future behavior.

  1. All of this can help people have a more successful career, better relationships, more self-confidence, and overall better communication.
  2. Psychology’s Impact In Helping Business And Organisations Psychology is critical to the workplace.
  3. The science of psychology is redefining what makes a successful workplace and helping to shape the technology that makes our lives easier.

Large businesses frequently consult psychologists to better understand things like their clientele’s practices and habits. Elsewhere, businesses may tap into industrial-organization psychology to increase productivity by improving workplace organization and structure while also refining training and employee screening processes.

  1. There are plenty of exciting careers in psychology that you might want to explore, but studying the subject can help you in many other professions as well.
  2. It helps managers at all levels of organizations select, support, motivate, and train employees.
  3. It also helps businesses design products, build better workspaces, and foster healthy behavior.

For example, if you want to become a business manager, understanding human behaviour can improve your ability to manage and interact with your employees. Through their scientific research, psychologists are discovering new ways to increase productivity, identify training and development needs, and implement policies proven to attract and retain the best employees.

By studying how people interact with technology and equipment, psychologists can help make these tools more user-friendly and prevent errors, whether we are using everyday products or life-critical technologies. Interested to learn more about psychology? Aventis Graduate School offers working professionals with non-psychology backgrounds to pursue a fast track,

Download the brochure ! Sources: https://www.apa.org/education-career/guide/paths/business https://www.verywellmind.com/why-study-psychology-2795149#:~:text=Develop%20Critical%20Thinking%20Skills,and%20critically%20about%20different%20issues. : The Importance of Psychology in Today’s Careers

Is psychology ever changing?

Bachelor’s degrees in psychology, like Maryville University’s Bachelor of Arts in Psychology online, aim to provide students with a broad foundation in contemporary psychological concepts. Courses such as Social Psychology, Human Development, Multicultural Psychology, and more help bachelor’s degree students gain applied, career-related knowledge that they can use throughout their professional lives, while learning about key psychological concepts like experimental methodology, critical thinking, and human behavior in depth.

  • As a science and a field of study, psychology is constantly evolving.
  • New areas of research are being explored, and decades-old beliefs are being questioned as new information comes to light.
  • Depending on the desired role, students who wish to become mental health professionals and be part of the exciting future of psychology may sometimes need a graduate-level degree as well as certifications.

But the first step in pursuing a rewarding psychology career is typically earning a bachelor’s degree in the field, As aspiring mental health professionals pursue their bachelor’s degree in psychology, it is crucial that they are on top of the latest trends and developments shaping this field and the future of the mind, including burgeoning new topics in social science, the growing complexity of human diversity, and innovative new tools reshaping psychological research. What Is The Future Of Psychology Likely To Hold

How far psychology is useful in life?

How Does Psychology Help People? – Essentially, psychology helps people in large part because it can explain why people act the way they do. With this kind of professional insight, a psychologist can help people improve their decision making, stress management and behavior based on understanding past behavior to better predict future behavior.

What’s trending in psychology?

1. Growing Demand for Mental Health Services – Society is experiencing an increased need for mental health services since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. As more people seek counseling, workloads increase for all those providing mental health services.

In a survey of psychologists conducted by the American Psychological Association in Fall 2021, 10% of respondents reported an increase in the need for anxiety treatment since the beginning of the pandemic, and 12% reported an increase in the demand for treatment of depression. Additionally, 62% of the survey respondents received more referrals in 2021 than in 2020, and 68% reported a longer waitlist in 2021 compared to the beginning of the pandemic.

This resulted in many practitioners offering telehealth services if they weren’t already. In the APA survey, 96% of respondents answered that they believed the use of telehealth was effective as a therapeutic tool, and 93% intended to continue providing remote services after the pandemic.

What are the 4 big ideas in current psychology?

Big idea 1 – Critical thinking is smart thinking. Big idea 2 – Behavior is a biopsychosocial event. Big idea 3 – We operate with a two-track mind. Big idea 4 – Psychology explores human strengths as well as challenges.

What is a current issue in psychology?

Anxiety disorders. Autism spectrum disorder in children. Bullying. Climate change. COVID-19.

What is the goal of modern psychology?

The Importance of Psychology – To sum up, the four major objectives of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and change or control behaviors. These goals are the foundation of most theories and studies in an attempt to understand the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes that people face in their daily lives.

  • While psychology is a broad field of scientific study, it is not that hard to see the importance it brings to various aspects of human society.
  • By providing deeper knowledge as to how human thoughts and actions are related to biology, mental processes, social relationships, and interactions, psychology helps facilitate peak human performance, enabling individuals to make healthy lifestyle choices or overcome the obstacles that inhibit them from making smarter decisions.

References :

APA (2013). Helping businesses and organizations. Psychology: Science in Action, Bannen, E. (2019, April 9). The psychology of building relationships. Platform Magazine, Cherry, K. (2005, October 30). What you should know about psychology. Verywell Mind, Cherry, K. (2019, October 28). How the goals of psychology are used to study behavior. (n.d.). Verywell Mind, CareerProfiles (n.d.). Psychology careers, career opportunities, programs & job search resources. CareerProfiles.com, Henriques, G. (2013, June 16). Psychology’s three great branches. Psychology Today, Lesley University (n.d.). The psychology of emotional and cognitive empathy. Lesley.edu, McLeod, S. (2007, February 5). Classical conditioning. Simply Psychology, McLeod, S (2019). What is psychology? Simply Psychology, Saybrook University (2011, May 9). What is the importance of communication in psychology? Saybrook Blog, tegna2017 (2018, March 7). Importance of psychology today. What’s happening at UDC! Virtual Speech Coach (n.d.).10 ways to increase your speaking energy. VirtualSpeechCoach.com, Zenger, J. (2018, April 9). The confidence gap in men and women: Why it matters and how to overcome it. Forbes,

What is the future of community psychology?

Therefore, in the future, Community Psychology should focus both on macro- and micro-issues of community analysis and community building, and it should develop its identity as a ‘linking science’ fertilizing different approaches into a both overall and culture-specific approach of community-based research and practice.

Is psychology a science 2023?

Psychology is classified as a social science, but many disagree with this classification. Ruby Moran, Staff Reporter January 18, 2023 What Is The Future Of Psychology Likely To Hold Robina Weermeijer / Unsplash “In fact, if we are to understand ourselves better than we do now, I have no doubt that we must try to unravel all these complicated activities of the living matter in our brain,” said psychologist E.D Adrian in his book, ‘The Physical Background of Perception,’ published in 1947.

  • Imagine a glowing orb floating in a void.
  • The orb starts to expand, releasing tendrils of light to spread across the black plane.
  • The tendrils twist and turn around one another as they stretch, eventually learning to communicate with one another.
  • Each branch of the orb serves a function, and the intercommunication between them helps the orb create more within this blank space and learn to build on its foundational knowledge of its capabilities.

This orb is much like the mind. Our minds are constantly perceiving and learning new things, broadening our knowledge and understanding of ourselves and our surroundings through new experiences. The explanation for how the mind learns, grows, and affects our behavior is far beyond a one-size-fits-all response.

As a result, humans have turned to studying it. Psychology is the study of the mind and how its functions affect our behavior. It originated from philosophical questions on how the human mind works and why. This later transitioned into its field of study in the 1800s, and truly gained traction after the first psychology laboratory was established by William Wundt.

With an established laboratory, psychologists had the space to widen their research and experimental discoveries. This was further propelled by the first psychology professor, James Mekeen, a student of William Wundt, during a time in which psychology was considered a lesser science.

  1. Since then, psychology has expanded from universities and laboratories, and is taught in many settings.
  2. Today, high school students may explore psychology in A.P.
  3. Or post-A.P.
  4. Psychology, dual enrollment, or volunteer with an organization focused on mental health and psychology.
  5. It has become a much more accessible subject to study than in the past.

As a result, psychology has also become increasingly popular among students, and is now the eighth most popular major in the country, with more than 195k psychology degrees being awarded in 2021. Although some people discourage pursuing psychology, many individuals continue to be allured by the idea of learning how the human mind works.

  1. Ericka Wilson ’24, who currently takes the A.P.
  2. Psychology course offered at The Bronx High School of Science, is one of the many students who have been drawn to the subject.
  3. I like knowing how the brain structure affects our every day life and how we as humans function, as well as knowing why we think the way that we do, whether it is based medically or from things done as children,” she said.

This idea is shared by many of her fellow classmates. Anna Rosario ’24 said, ” Psychology has the ability to understand humans and their behaviors. It can be both general or individualized, which is what particularly captivates me. Humans come from all types of backgrounds with differing types of experiences, memories, and interactions, so when studying each person independently, it’s fascinating what can arise and what patterns we can take notice of.” This increase in popularity and attention given to the field brings more attention to the debate about its status as a science.

This conclusion is drawn from the claim that psychology doesn’t align with the five criteria for sciences, defined as terminology, quantifiability, highly controlled experimental conditions, reproducibility, and predictability and testability, and therefore should not be categorized as a science. In an article in The Los Angeles Times, psychologist Timothy D.

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Wilson said t hat he feels that his field of study is frequently disrespected and overlooked. Science writer Alex B. Berezow disagreed with this sentiment in his Los Angeles Times article ‘Why Psychology Isn’t a Science’ and declared that the supposed disrespect towards psychologists was because, “i t’s rooted in the tired exasperation that scientists feel when non-scientists try to pretend they are scientists.” One point that Berezow brings up is that emotions and the reasons for which they are felt vary from person to person.

  • Though there are likely commonalities between some groups of people, there is no tool like a microscope or ruler to measure such emotions, and placing abstract sensory concepts under one definition will not fit nearly enough cases per feeling.
  • Since feelings such as happiness cannot be strictly defined, psychology fails to meet the requirements for clear terminology and quantifiability.

The Stanford Prison Experiment of 1971 aimed to study how individuals conformed to societal roles. Stanford professor Philip Zimbardo selected a group of 24 male college students to act as either prisoners or prison guards. Zimbardo had to shut the experiment after six days because the group had conformed to their roles so much that the environment grew tense and dangerous.

  • It may be argued that the sample size was too small and too specific to truly represent the extent to which individuals conform to societal roles.
  • If a greater sample size of a more diverse group of people were selected for the experiment, it is possible that the results would vary much more and fit into the criteria a lot better.

If the experiment were to be redone with the same sample size and type of individuals under the same conditions, it is very likely that the results will be similar to the original experiment. Under this experiment, there were highly controlled conditions and reproducibility.

  1. Psychology may not use microscopes or weights, but contrary to some beliefs, it does include a form of measurement called psychometrics.
  2. Though not used in the conventional sense of measurement, where each tool has its designated purpose, psychometrics do require a procedure to provide a particular score to an individual that represents a particular characteristic, similar to how a scale assigns weight.

As for how psychology may compare to sciences like chemistry or biology, psychology follows several scientific principles: it includes fact collection, theory creation, and a testing of those theories through a series of experiments. At its core, it shares many similarities with the higher respected sciences, though categorized differently.

Psychology is, like any other scientific discipline, heterogeneous. So I don’t think you can say that all of psychology is a certain kind of way,” said Mr. Daniel McNickle, an A.P. Psychology teacher at Bronx Science. Some argue about its differences from chemistry, biology, physics, and the like, but those subjects are categorized differently than psychology is, and they have already been established to be distinct.

Biology is a life science, while chemistry and physics are both physical sciences, which shows that there is a separation even between the hard sciences. Psychology is categorized as a social science, meaning that it is one of the branches that study society and human behavior.

  1. That along with psychology’s philosophical roots set it apart from the other sciences and placed it into a category with sociology and anthropology.
  2. Psychology is a fluid, dynamic science. As Mr.
  3. McNickle put it, ” Since bias is human and universal, I believe that the scientific community needs to resemble, and thus represent, the human community, so that we can check and correct each other’s biases in this search for truth.” In short, psychology is a unique practice.

It goes beyond the use of tools and experiments and draws from its philosophical roots to provide us with a better understanding of ourselves and our surroundings. It is a science that fits more than one definition and may not strictly apply to the criteria all the time, but it is valid nonetheless.

How is AI used in psychology?

Cognitive psychology-based artificial intelligence review 1 School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China Find articles by 1 School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China Find articles by 1 School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China Find articles by 1 School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China Find articles by 2 Medical Big Data Research Center, Northwest University, Xi’an, China 3 School of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi’an, China Find articles by

1 School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China 2 Medical Big Data Research Center, Northwest University, Xi’an, China 3 School of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi’an, China Corresponding author.Edited by: Fangzhou Xu, Qilu University of Technology, ChinaReviewed by: Bao Ge, Shaanxi Normal University, China; Cai Wen, McMaster University, Canada; Lei Min, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), China

*Correspondence: Jian Jia, This article was submitted to Neuroprosthetics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience Received 2022 Aug 21; Accepted 2022 Sep 13. © 2022 Zhao, Wu, Zhou, Wang and Jia. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).

  • The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
  • No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Most of the current development of artificial intelligence is based on brain cognition, however, this replication of biology cannot simulate the subjective emotional and mental state changes of human beings. Due to the imperfections of existing artificial intelligence, this manuscript summarizes and clarifies that artificial intelligence system combined with cognitive psychology is the research direction of artificial intelligence.

It aims to promote the development of artificial intelligence and give computers human advanced cognitive abilities, so that computers can recognize emotions, understand human feelings, and eventually achieve dialog and empathy with humans and other artificial intelligence. This paper emphasizes the development potential and importance of artificial intelligence to understand, possess and discriminate human mental states, and argues its application value with three typical application examples of human–computer interaction: face attraction, affective computing, and music emotion, which is conducive to the further and higher level of artificial intelligence research.

Keywords: cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, cognitive theory, behavioral science, human–computer interaction At present, in the development of artificial intelligence (AI), the scientific community is mostly based on brain cognition research (), which is to reproduce the real physiological activities of our human brain through computer software.

  1. This replication of the biology of the human brain cannot well simulate the subjective psychological changes ().
  2. For example, in terms of memory, human memory forgetting is non-active, and the more we want to forget the more memorable it becomes, while machine forgetting is an active deletion, which deviates from our psychological expectations.

In the process of promoting the progress of artificial intelligence, psychology and its derived philosophy of mind play an important role directly or indirectly, can be considered as one of the fundamental supporting theories of AI. For example: The current reinforcement learning theory in AI is inspired by the behaviorist theory in psychology, i.e., how an organism gradually develops expectations of stimuli in response to rewarding or punishing stimuli given by the environment, resulting in habitual behavior that yields maximum benefit.

The current challenges faced by the artificial intelligence community – the emotional response of artificial intelligence machines, decision making in ambiguous states also need to rely on breakthroughs in the corresponding fields of psychology. Psychology and its derived philosophy of mind can be considered as one of the fundamental support theories for artificial intelligence ().

Cognitive psychology is mainly a psychological science that studies the advanced mental processes of human cognition, including the degree of thinking, deciding, reasoning, motivation and emotion. The most important feature that distinguishes humans from machines is that humans process external input by feeding back different attitudes toward things through our already internalized knowledge units about the external world, stimulating different subjective emotional orientations such as satisfaction, dissatisfaction, love, dislike and so on.

  1. These labeled emotional traits are generated by human cognitive psychology.
  2. By measuring subjective emotional changes, the internal knowledge structure is updated and the artificial intelligence machine is guided to re-learn, so that human attitudes, preferences and other subjective emotional experiences are given in AI (; ).

Research on artificial intelligence is still in the developmental stage in terms of simulating human memory, attention, perception, knowledge representation, emotions, intentions, desires, and other aspects (). As the existing AI is not perfect, the AI system combined with cognitive psychology is the research direction of AI: Promote the development of artificial intelligence, endow the computer with the ability to simulate the advanced cognition of human beings, and carry out learning and thinking, so that computers can recognize emotions, understand human feelings, and finally achieve dialog and empathy with humans and other AI.

In terms of existing research results and methods, artificial intelligence combines new theories and methods such as psychology, brain science and computer science to conduct artificial intelligence machine simulation on people’s psychological activities, reproduce people’s psychology, integrate and promote each other, and jointly create more universal and autonomous artificial intelligence, which can better realize human–computer interaction () and further improve the level of social intelligence.

At the same time, with the development of psychology, the scope of research and the choice of research objects are more extensive and universal, making artificial intelligence products have the conditions for rapid penetration into the field of psychology, resulting in research products such as facial expression-based emotion recognition system, public opinion analysis based on big data analysis technology, intelligent medical image grading or diagnosis, suicide early warning system and intelligent surveillance management system, which in turn promotes the development of psychology and shortens the research cycle of psychology ().

The review of artificial intelligence based on cognitive psychology at this stage is not comprehensive enough. This manuscript does the following: (a) introduce the current situation and progress of artificial intelligence research on cognitive psychology in recent years; (b) analyze the experimental data on the application examples of cognitive psychology in artificial intelligence; (c) summarize and outlook the related development trend.

Research related to artificial intelligence in cognitive psychology is trending in recent years. In the mid-1980s, the term “Kansei Engineeirng” was introduced in the Japanese science and technology community (). They interpret sensibility as human psychological characteristics, study people’s perceptual needs with engineering methods, and then conduct in-depth research on people’s perceptual information, and the scope of their research is the human psychological perceptual activities.

  1. Professor Wang Zhiliang of University of Science and Technology Beijing proposed the concept of “artificial psychology” on this basis: The artificial psychological theory is to use the method of information science to realize the more comprehensive content of people’s psychological activities.
  2. He broadened the range of psychological characteristics involved in “Kansei Engineeirng,” including low-level psychological activities and high-level processes of psychological activities.

It is the reflection of human brain on objective reality, which makes artificial psychology have a new meaning and broader content. Minsky, one of the founders of artificial intelligence, proposed the theory of “society of mind” in his 1985 monograph “The Society of Mind” (), which attempts to combine the approaches of developmental psychology, dynamic psychology and cognitive psychology with the ideas of artificial intelligence and computational theory.

Since then, the research on endowing the computer with emotional ability and enabling the computer to understand and express emotions has set off an upsurge in the computer field. In 1978, deepmind team put forward the theory of mind (). In a broad sense, it refers to the ability of human beings to understand the psychological state of themselves and others, including expectations, beliefs and intentions, and to predict and explain other people’s behaviors based on this.

In 2017, in the case study of deepmind team, the research team selected “shape preference” as the entry point for detecting neural networks. It found that, like human beings, the network’s perception of shape exceeded its preference for color and material, which proved that neural networks also have “shape preference” ().

In 2018, the Deepmind team open sourced the simulation psychology laboratory Psychlab, which uses knowledge in cognitive psychology and other fields to study the behavior of artificial agents in controlled environments, thereby simulating human behavior (). In 2020, Taylor incorporated cognitive psychology into the emerging field of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) with the aim of improving the interpretability, fairness, and transparency of machine learning.

shows the evolution of AI in cognitive psychology (). Cognitive psychology has been very instructive for the development of AI, and current AI design makes extensive reference to human cognitive models. The process of human mental activity is simulated in various aspects such as attention, encoding, and memory.

  • Cognitive psychological artificial intelligence has been researched in many fields.
  • In this manuscript, we study the basic contents and latest progress of psychology and brain science, and systematically analyze and summarize three typical application scenarios: face attraction, affective computing, and music emotion.

These examples guide the learning of AI through the higher mental processes of human cognition, including subjective mental orientations such as thinking and emotion. Artificial intelligence is trained to recognize emotions, understand human feelings, and replicate the human psyche, which in turn accelerates research in cognitive psychology.

Different aesthetic judgments of human faces are one of the most common manifestations of human visual psychology, which is an important source of social emotion generation and plays a role in human social interaction and communication (). In daily life, most people think that beauty is a subjective feeling, however, scientists have broken the long-held belief that beauty lacks objectivity and found a high degree of consistency in human perception of facial beauty across race, age, gender, social class, and cultural background.

This observation also suggests that face attractiveness reflects to some extent general human psychological commonalities. SCUT-FBP5500, a database for face attractiveness prediction, was collected and released by the Human–Computer Interaction Laboratory of South China University of Technology.

  1. The dataset has 5,500 face frontal photos with different attributes (male/female, age and so on) and different feature labels including face feature point coordinates, face value score (1∼5), face value score distribution and so on.
  2. These mental preference features were experimentally used as training data to form mental state embeddings.

Then different computer models (AlexNet, ResNet-18, ResNeXt-50) were used for classification, regression and ranking to form a deep learning-based face attractiveness template (). Evaluate the benchmark according to various measurement indicators, including Pearson correlation coefficient (PC), maximum absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) evaluation model.

  1. We used the five-fold method to analyze the performance of the face attractiveness templates under different computer models, and found that the Pearson correlation coefficient was above 0.85, the maximum absolute error was around 0.25, and the root mean square error was between 0.3 and 0.4 ().
  2. Elham Vahdati proposes and evaluates a face facial attractiveness prediction method using facial parts as well as a multi-task learning scheme.

First, face attractiveness prediction is performed using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) pre-trained on a massive face dataset to automatically learn advanced face representations. Next, the deep model is extended to other facial attribute recognition tasks using a multi-task learning scheme to learn the best shared features for three related tasks (such as facial beauty assessment, gender recognition, and race recognition).

  1. To further improve the accuracy of the attractiveness computation, specific regions of the face image (such as left eye, nose, and mouth) as well as the entire face are fed into a multi-stream CNN (such as three dual-stream networks).
  2. Each dual-stream network uses partial features of the face and the full face as input.
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Extensive experiments were conducted on the SCUT-FBP5500 benchmark dataset, with a significant improvement in accuracy (). Irina Lebedeva, Fangli Ying learned a large number of aesthetic preferences shared by many people during the meta-training process.

  • The model is then used on new individuals with a small sample of rated images in the meta-testing phase.
  • These experiments were conducted on a facial beauty dataset that included faces of different races, genders, and age groups and were scored by hundreds of volunteers with different social and cultural backgrounds.

The results show that the proposed method is effective in learning individual beauty preferences from a limited number of annotated images and outperforms existing techniques for predicting facial beauty in terms of quantitative comparisons (). We summarize the theoretical concepts of artificial intelligence based on cognitive psychology, and do relevant research on this basis.

  1. Since the database of face attractiveness needs to be characterized by large samples, diversity and universality, in 2016, we built a Chinese face database containing different ethnicities of different genders.
  2. In 2017, considering that the contour structure, geometric features and texture features of faces change with age, in order to study the impact of different face features on the evaluation of face attractiveness under different age groups, we built a middle-aged and elderly face database.

In 2018, we used migration learning to migrate the face feature point templates of face recognition to the construction of face attractiveness face templates, and constructed a geometric feature-based face attractiveness evaluation model. In 2019, we established a face database of Chinese males in different eras, and studied the aesthetic characteristics and trends of Chinese males from the perspective of era development.

  • An 81-point face feature point template for face attractiveness analysis was also proposed through feature vector analysis of face image quantification and light model.
  • In 2020, a comprehensive facial attractiveness evaluation system was proposed considering the combined effects of face structure features, facial structure features, and skin texture features on face attractiveness scores, and the experimental results are shown in, when these three features are integrated with each other, the Pearson correlation coefficient reached the highest value of 0.806 (, ; ).

Performance of face attractiveness prediction with different features.

Predictive performance F S LBP F × S F × LBP S × LBP F × S × LBP
LR 0.502 0.616 0.658 0.683 0.654 0.637 0.722
KNN 0.619 0.672 0.694 0.753 0.771 0.782 0.794
SVM-LIN 0.649 0.738 0.712 0.768 0.732 0.724 0.797
SVM-RBF 0.702 0.713 0.741 0.763 0.754 0.781 0.806

Through years of research at the intersection of artificial intelligence + face attractiveness, it is shown that although it may be difficult to establish a clear, interpretable and accepted set of rules to define face attractiveness. However, it is possible to explore the relationship between ordinary faces and attractive faces, and the qualitative study of face aesthetic preferences can be described quantitatively by artificial intelligence.

The results highly fit contemporary aesthetic standards, demonstrating that it is feasible for computers to simulate advanced human cognitive abilities to recognize emotions and understand human feelings, and that the development of artificial intelligence based on cognitive psychology has potential and significance.

Emotion is a psychological state of positive or negative attitude toward external things and objective reality, and can be defined as a group of psychological phenomena expressed in the form of emotions, feelings or passions. Emotions not only refer to human emotions, but also refer to all human sensory, physical, psychological and spiritual feelings.

Damasio found in his research that due to the defect of the channel between the cerebral cortex (Cortex: control of logical reasoning) and the limbic system (Limbic System: control of emotion), his “patients” despite having normal or even supernormal rational thinking and logical reasoning. However, their decision-making ability has encountered serious obstacles (), proving that human intelligence is not only manifested in normal rational thinking and logical reasoning abilities, but also in rich emotional abilities.

More than 40 years ago, Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon emphasized in cognitive psychology that problem solving should incorporate the influence of emotions (). As one of the founders of artificial intelligence, Professor Marvin Minsky of the Massachusetts Institute of technology of the United States first proposed the ability to make computers have emotion.

  • In his monograph the society of mind, he emphasized that emotion is an indispensable and important ability for machines to achieve intelligence.
  • The concept of affective computing was first introduced by Picard (1995), when she stated that “affective computing is computing that can measure and analyze and influence emotions in response to human outward expressions” ().

This opened up a new field of computer science, with the idea that computers should have emotions and be able to recognize and express them as humans do, thus making human–computer interaction more natural. As an important means of interpersonal communication, emotion conveys the information of emotional state and explains complex psychological activities and behavioral motives through physiological indicators such as human language text, intonation volume change, facial expression, action posture and brain wave.

  • In, Ekman (1972) an American professor of psychology, proposed a method for the expression of facial emotions (Facial Motor Coding System FACS) ().
  • By the combination of different coding and motor units, complex expression changes can be formed on the face.
  • Facial motion coding system FACS can analyze emotions using deep region and multi-label learning (DRML) architecture, using feedforward functions to induce important facial regions, and able to learn weights to capture structural information of the face.

The resulting network is end-to-end trainable and converges faster than alternative models with better learning of AU relationships (). The corresponding emotion computation formula can be derived based on the facial motion encoding, as shown.

Expression Formula of AU
Happiness AU6 + AU12
Sadness AU1 + AU4 + AU15
Surprise AU1 + AU2 + AU5 + AU26
Fear AU1 + AU2 + AU4 + AU5 + AU7 + AU20 + AU26
Anger AU4 + AU5 + AU7 + AU23
Disgust AU9 + AU15 + AU16
Contempt AU12 + AU14

In the process of human information interaction, speech is the most common way for people to communicate. As the most basic audiovisual signal, speech cannot only identify different vocalists, but also effectively distinguish different emotional states.

  • International research on emotional speech focuses on the analysis of acoustic features of emotions, such as rhythm, sound source, resonance peaks and spectrum and so on ().
  • In recent years, deep learning has been widely studied and has many applications in speech emotion computation.
  • Dongdong Li proposed a bidirectional long short-term memory network with directed self-attention (BLSTM-DSA).

Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks can learn long-term dependencies from learned local features. In addition, Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory(Bi-LSTM) can make the structure more robust through the direction mechanism, and the direction analysis can better identify the hidden emotions in sentences.

  • Also, the autocorrelation of speech frames can be used to deal with the problem of missing information, thus introducing a self-attention mechanism in Speech Emotion Recognition (SER).
  • When evaluated on the Interactive Emotional Binary Motion Capture (IEMOCAP) database and the Berlin Emotional Speech Database (EMO-DB), BLSTM-DSA achieves a recognition rate of over 70% for each algorithm on the speech emotion recognition task ().

Human posture often carries emotional information during interaction. Researchers have combined human posture with artificial intelligence to quantitatively assess the external representation of a person’s mental state in the face of different situations through a series of movement and body information capture devices.

For example, the intelligent seat is applied to the driver’s seat of the vehicle to dynamically monitor the emotional state of the driver and give timely warnings. Some scientists in Italy also conduct automatic emotional analysis on office staff through a series of posture analysis to design a more comfortable office environment.

Electroencephalographic(EEG) is a graph obtained by amplifying and recording the spontaneous biological potential of the brain from the scalp through precise electronic instruments. It has been widely used in the field of emotion recognition. The DEAP dataset used to study human emotional states (), recording EEG and peripheral physiological signals from 32 participants watching 40 one-minute long music video clips.

  1. Participants rated each video according to arousal, potency, like/dislike, dominance, and familiarity.
  2. Correlations between EEG signal frequencies and participants’ ratings were investigated by emotional label retrieval, and decision fusion was performed on classification results from different modalities.

The experiments obtained an average recognition rate of up to 84.2% and up to 98% by identifying a single emotional state, while for two, three and four emotions, the average recognition rate was up to 90.2, 84.2, and 80.9%, respectively. shows the validated classification accuracy of the DEAP dataset based on different recognition models ().

Stimulus Classifier Emotions Subjects Accuracy
Video GELM 4 32 69.67
Audio MLP 4 30 78.11
Video Nearest neighbour 4 32 73.62
Video Domain-adaptation 5 14 39.05
Video SVM Valence-dominance 10 63.04
Video K-NN 2 30 69.50

Our research group has also carried out relevant research on multimodal affective computing, and has a patent for automatic diagnosis of depression based on speech and facial expression: By combining facial gesture features, we propose a new double dictionary idea with gesture robustness.

In 2016, feature extraction and evaluation of depressed speech were performed, and in the following year, we proposed to use the change of expression of depressed patients as one of the evaluation indicators to determine whether they suffer from depression as well. and shows the data. Speech emotion recognition rate.

Face facial emotion recognition rate. In 2018, a new automatic depression assistant discrimination algorithm integrating speech and facial expression was proposed. Firstly, the signal enhancement was performed for depressed speech; the fundamental frequency and the first three resonance peaks features were extracted by the inverse spectral method, and the energy, short-time average amplitude and Mel-Frequency Ceptral Coefficients(MFCC) features were extracted; the speech recognition model and the facial expression recognition model were established to assist in judging whether a person has depression; finally, the Adaboost algorithm based on back propagation(BP) neural network was proposed and validated in a practical situation for an automatic depression-assisted detection system.

As shown, the recognition rate of the depression detection algorithm based on fused speech and facial emotion reached 81.14%. The development of artificial intelligence provides a more objective judgment basis for the diagnosis of depression in psychological medical health, which has cutting-edge and application value ().

The integration of voice and facial expression recognition rate.

Speech recognition results (%) Facial expression recognition results (%) After fusion recognition results (%)
Before the speech signal enhancement 62.4 85.5 75.75
Enhanced speech signal 78.8 85.5 82.29

Affective computing is a combination of computational science with physiology science, psychological science, cognitive science and other disciplines. Based on the common cognition and knowledge structure of human on different emotional expressions, it studies the emotions in the process of human-human interaction and human–computer interaction, and guides the design of artificial intelligence with emotion recognition and feedback functions, understands human emotional intentions and makes appropriate responses to achieve human–computer emotional interaction.

Extensive research on musical emotions suggests that music can trigger emotional activity in listeners. Scientists believe that when a person is in a beautiful and pleasant musical environment, the body secretes an active substance that is beneficial to health and helps eliminate psychological factors that cause tension, anxiety, depression and other adverse psychological states ().

People’s preference for different kinds of music is not without rules, after psychological cognition and data test, there is a precise music signal α value can measure the ear-pleasant degree. The closer the music signal α is to the value 1, the better it sounds.

  • The value of α also can be obtained by artificial intelligence ().
  • This shows that people’s psychological state toward music can be judged by machines, and further research can be based on this law to simulate good-sounding music in line with public aesthetics and realize the interaction between emotions and machines.

As, a team of researchers from the University of Reading and the University of Plymouth in the UK developed and evaluated an affective brain-computer music interface (aBCMI) for detecting a user’s current emotional state and attempting to modulate it by playing music generated by a music composition system based on specific emotional goals.

  1. The proposed affective brain-computer music interface (aBCMI).
  2. The system consists of five key elements: (A),
  3. The user of the system (B),
  4. The user’s physiological signal acquisition module (including the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration rate) (C),
  5. An emotional state detection system for identifying a current emotional state that a user is experiencing (D),

A case-based reasoning system that determines how a user moves from his current emotional state to a new target emotional state (E), The music generator is used to play music for the user. The case-based reasoning system identifies the most appropriate emotional trajectory and moves them to the target emotional state.

The affective state detection method achieved statistically significant online single-trial classification accuracy in classifying user potency in seven-eighths of participants and in classifying user arousal in three-eighths of participants. The mean accuracy for affective state detection was 53.96% (chemotaxis) and 53.80% (arousal) ().

The experimental data also demonstrate that the aBCMI system is able to detect the emotional states of most of the participants and generate music based on their emotional states to achieve “happy” and “calm” mental states. By visualizing abstract mental states, extracting features from changes in emotional states, and quantifying different emotions in different musical environments, the aBCMI system can effectively characterize and provide feedback to regulate current emotional states, realizing the combination of psychology and artificial intelligence.

Musical emotion regulation aims to record physiological indicators from users with a signal acquisition component in order to capture the cognitive and physiological processes associated with their current affective state. Features are extracted from the physiological signals that most likely correspond to changes in the user’s affective state.

Then the case-based reasoning system is used to determine the best method to transfer them to the target emotional state, so as to move the user to the target emotional state. Dapeng Li and Xiaoguang Liu have also combined incremental music teaching methods to assist therapy.

The combination of contextual teaching and artificial intelligence attention theory makes the assisted treatment system more targeted. The design of treatment content more fully takes into account the patient’s actual situation. When designing the music teaching-assisted treatment context, the physician will fully consider various factors of the patient, from the perspective of mobilizing the patient’s interest in the music learning work, to achieve the full activity of brain neurons and more fully access the pathological information around the lesion to promote autoimmunity and subsequent treatment ().

The evocation of musical emotions is based on functional connections between sensory, emotional and cognitive areas of the brain, including subcortical reward networks common to humans and other animals, such as the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and dopaminergic systems, as well as the evolutionary end of the cerebral cortex with complex cognitive functions.

  • Musical emotions regulate the activity of almost all limbic and paralimbic structures of the brain.
  • Music can induce different emotions, and we can also use music emotions to guide the development of artificial intelligence.
  • Further research is expected in such fields as music generation, education, medical treatment and so on.

Through systematic analysis and application examples, this manuscript points out that the artificial intelligence system combined with cognitive psychology is the development direction of artificial intelligence: to promote the development of artificial intelligence, to give computers the ability to simulate human’s advanced cognition, and to learn and think, so that computers can recognize emotions and understand human feelings, and finally realize dialog and empathy with human beings and other artificial intelligence.

Artificial intelligence with human psychological cognition cannot only simulate the rational thinking of “brain,” but also reproduce the perceptual thinking of “heart,” and can realize the emotional interaction between people and machines, machines and machines, similar to human communication. Nowadays, the theory of artificial intelligence based on cognitive psychology also has imperfections: due to the differences in race, region and growth environment, the evaluation criteria for each subject are not completely consistent, and the random sampling difference is even greater Moreover, mental activities are generally ambiguous and chaotic.

The future interdisciplinary combination of AI and psychology will focus on the following aspects: big data medical, human–computer interaction, brain-computer interface, general artificial intelligence and so on. Through the combination of cognitive science in psychology and AI, breakthroughs in many aspects will be achieved based on multimodal data and extraction of high-dimensional data.

The two accomplish each other, complementing each other and developing together. This manuscript provides a research direction for the development of artificial intelligence to simulate machines with human emotions and to realize human–computer interaction. It has the characteristics of cutting-edge science, which is not only of great theoretical significance, but also has good development potential and application prospects.

It is hoped that it can provide research basis for follow-up researchers. JZ formulated the research manuscript idea, provided substantial edits to the manuscript and final draft, and aided in the interpretation of the manuscript. MW wrote the main body of the manuscript, participated in revisions, and submitted the final manuscript.

  • LZ contributed to the formulation of the research manuscript idea, provided substantial edits to the manuscript and the final draft, and aided in the interpretation of the manuscript.
  • XW and JJ participated in the conception of the idea and revised the manuscript.
  • All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China: 12071369 and Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi (No.2019ZDLSF02-09-02). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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: Cognitive psychology-based artificial intelligence review

How technology can affect psychology?

Advancements in technology allow people to be more connected than ever, but this may come at a price. Overuse of social media and mobile devices have been linked to eyestrain, difficulty focusing on other tasks, and depression. While some forms of technology may have made positive changes in the world, there is evidence for the negative effects of technology and its overuse, as well.

Why psychology is the best career?

If you’re fascinated by the way the mind works and want to know more about what motivates people to do the things they do, a psychology bachelor’s degree may be the perfect next step for you. If so, check out what can you do with a psychology bachelor’s degree ? Here are the top 10 reasons why you should earn a bachelors in psychology:

Insight into human behavior: Many individuals study psychology because they want to better understand themselves or those around them. Through a bachelor’s degree in psychology, you’ll gain a deeper understanding of the many factors that affect human behavior. This will empower you to more effectively help others, and it can increase your capacity for compassion for them (even when they aren’t being their most lovable selves). Such insight is also valuable in careers related to education, persuasion, conflict resolution and negotiation.

Many career pathways: There are many different types of jobs that you can get with a psychology degree. Some focus on research — that is, digging deeper into the workings of human behavior and the mind — while others are more focused on applying research in clinical, corporate and other settings. A bachelor’s in psychology can be the first step toward a career in counseling, research, social work, human resources, marketing, workforce development or education. With a bachelor’s degree, you’ll be eligible to go into jobs such as: advertising agent, career counselor, case manager, human resources specialist, lab assistant, market researcher, rehabilitation specialist or substance abuse counselor.

Graduate school: Many jobs in the field of psychology — such as clinical mental health counselor or school psychologist — require a master’s degree and certification or a professional license to practice. For some psychology-related jobs (such as psychiatrist or college professor), you’ll also need a doctorate. Earning a bachelor’s degree in psychology enables you to work in the psychology field as you’re going on to graduate school. It also lets you discover and explore areas that are of particular interest to you and that you want to learn more about in graduate school. Your bachelor’s degree will also establish a great foundation of knowledge that will be invaluable as you advance into more specialized programs at the master’s and doctorate levels. Psychology-related graduate programs may also require you to have taken certain classes as an undergraduate, and a bachelor’s degree in psychology can help ensure you already have those pre-requisites in place.

Making a difference in people’s lives: Individuals who study psychology are often motivated by the desire to help others. A degree in psychology opens up many opportunities to have a positive effect on someone’s life. For example, as a practitioner in the field, you may help people overcome the effects of trauma, deal with a mental illness, face a mental health crisis or achieve personal goals. As a researcher, you may help educators better understand how their students learn or make advances toward better treatments for diseases, disorders or illnesses that affect mental health or cognitive function.

Job outlook: The job outlook is very bright for psychology-related professions. The criminal justice system is increasingly using treatment and counseling services in place of jail time for convicted drug offenders. As a result, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 25% growth in demand for substance abuse, behavioral disorder and mental health counselors between 2019 and 2029. Job openings for school and career counselors are also expected to increase — projected to grow 8% in the 2019–2029 time period. This will be driven by a rise in the number of students in K-12 schools as well as a trend toward expanding career service offerings on college campuses. While growth in demand for psychologists may seem modest in contrast — just 3% during the same time period — there are still strong career opportunities in this area as well. Aging populations and a better understanding of mental health needs will mean continued demand for psychologists.

There’s always something else to discover: We haven’t come close to completely figuring out the human mind. What’s more, our understanding of what we think we know is constantly evolving, thanks to ongoing research. That leaves a lot of room for you to make a significant contribution to the field. Consider, for example, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which was originally thought to be a form of childhood schizophrenia and was at first attributed to poor parenting. We’ve come a long way since then in our understanding of ASD, but there are still many questions left to answer. The field is wide open for you to help make the next major advance in this and other research.

A wide field of study: There are many different types of psychology, including cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology, developmental psychology, forensic psychology and occupational psychology. These various branches explore how the mind develops, learns and ultimately functions and how various factors affect human behavior, cognitive development and mental health. You can take your study of psychology in a lot of different directions — and a bachelor’s degree in psychology is a perfect starting point for all of them.

Always learning: As new research emerges and existing theories are refined, the field of psychology continues to evolve. A bachelor’s in psychology establishes a great base of knowledge that you’ll be able to build on throughout your career. You’ll continue to learn as you read peer-reviewed journals, attend conferences and otherwise engage with colleagues.

Every day is different: A degree in psychology will set you on a path to a career in which you can help people find solutions to the challenges they face. You’ll put your problem-solving skills to use as you continually tackle unique situations. It’s likely that no two days will look alike — and that keeps things fresh and interesting, even after you’ve got years of experience under your belt.

Becoming a better thinker: Psychology is the scientific examination of the way the mind works. As a result, when you study psychology, you learn how to think scientifically: testing hypotheses, questioning assumptions, looking closely at evidence and digging deeper when there’s not enough information. Such critical thinking skills are applicable in a variety of professional settings and everyday life.

In short, a bachelor’s degree in psychology can open up a lot of different rewarding career paths and other opportunities. Ready to get started? Apply to PennWest California’s psychology program today.

Is psychology ever changing?

Bachelor’s degrees in psychology, like Maryville University’s Bachelor of Arts in Psychology online, aim to provide students with a broad foundation in contemporary psychological concepts. Courses such as Social Psychology, Human Development, Multicultural Psychology, and more help bachelor’s degree students gain applied, career-related knowledge that they can use throughout their professional lives, while learning about key psychological concepts like experimental methodology, critical thinking, and human behavior in depth.

  • As a science and a field of study, psychology is constantly evolving.
  • New areas of research are being explored, and decades-old beliefs are being questioned as new information comes to light.
  • Depending on the desired role, students who wish to become mental health professionals and be part of the exciting future of psychology may sometimes need a graduate-level degree as well as certifications.

But the first step in pursuing a rewarding psychology career is typically earning a bachelor’s degree in the field, As aspiring mental health professionals pursue their bachelor’s degree in psychology, it is crucial that they are on top of the latest trends and developments shaping this field and the future of the mind, including burgeoning new topics in social science, the growing complexity of human diversity, and innovative new tools reshaping psychological research. What Is The Future Of Psychology Likely To Hold