What Is The Third Force In Psychology?

What Is The Third Force In Psychology
Historical background of humanistic psychotherapy – Humanistic psychology, referred to as the Third Force of US psychology, diverged from its predecessors: psychoanalysis and behaviorism. It represented a movement in the field that called for revisioning a new philosophy of life with an enriched concept of the whole person ( Maslow, 1943 ).

The first force of psychology was Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. The psychoanalytic perspective put forward a relatively fatalistic understanding of humans as driven primarily by inner conflict and instinctual urges. The second force, behaviorism, focused on observable human behaviors as determined by consequences.

In contrast, humanistic psychology established a hopeful, growth-oriented view of the person as both an individual with a unique worldview and agency exercised in an ecological context ( Bugental, 1964 ). It privileges the subjective understanding of clients’ experiences, recognizing that how we perceive reality is important.

Humanistic psychology’s defiance of any one-dimensional characterization of the human experience is a distinguishing feature. Given that humanistic theory asserts the irreducibility of the human condition, diverse methods of inquiry were ushered in to clarify questions about the breadth and depth of human experiences rather than those methods that merely classified abnormality.

It is important to situate humanistic psychology theory and clinical approaches within their rich historical context. The work of existential and phenomenological scholars in Europe, such as Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre, Edmund Husserl, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Albert Camus, responded to the political crises of their times.

Moral and ethical questions about being human in context, and in relationship with others, permeated the intellectual and cultural landscape. In the US postwar era, a hopeful zeal regarding social mobility and a growing middle class pervaded. The social and political climate was suffused with an optimism bolstered by postwar benefits and an economic upturn that heralded positive change and growth ( Moss, 1999 ).

In particular, themes of nonconformity, collective responsibility, and freedom were paramount within the cultural zeitgeist, stirring the ideas of humanistic visionaries. There was a collective yearning for a new model of humanity that mirrored these budding cultural sentiments.

  1. However, psychoanalysis and behaviorism continued to predominate in US psychology.
  2. It was not until the Old Saybrook Conference in November of 1964 that humanistic psychology moved beyond a fringe movement and was establish as the Third Force ( Aanstoos et al., 2000 ).
  3. Prior to this entry into mainstream psychology, Abraham Maslow, Clark Moustakas, and Carl Rogers led a series of meetings convened in the late 1950s to explore themes of self, creativity, actualization, and meaning ( Aanstoos et al., 2000 ).

In 1961, Anthony Sutich launched the Journal of Humanistic Psychology with a subscriber base of colleagues composed by Maslow, and an editorial board featuring esteemed humanistic thinkers, such as Erich Fromm and Rollo May. The burgeoning wave of humanistic psychology, and human growth centers held in the 60s and 70s, occurred alongside the countercultural thrust of the human potential movement.

In 1963, the inaugural meeting of the Association of Humanistic Psychology (AHP) convened, followed by the formation of the humanistic division, Division 32 of the American Psychological Association (APA), at the 1971 annual convention. The base of humanistic psychology was formed in the 40s and 50s.

However, its novel vibrance and sociopolitical power occurred in the late 1970s ( DeRobertis, 2013 ). In 1968, Maslow was elected president of APA. Years before, however, he founded a humanistically-oriented department of psychology at Brandeis University in 1951.

This sparked the development of numerous humanistic psychology graduate training programs in North America during the 60s and 70s, which remain prominent today ( Aanstoos et al., 2000 ). By the early 1970s, chapters and events of the Association for Humanistic Psychology (AHP) were located worldwide ( DeCarvalho, 1992 ).

During this time, there was synergy between the humanistic model and liberation movements during the US Civil Rights era. The emphasis on resisting constraints to freedom by challenging injustices and deprivation of liberties complemented the humanistic emphasis on supporting individuals’ growth and basic need fulfillment.

Humanistic psychology maintained that health and wellbeing were enhanced by actualizing individual and cultural freedoms. Today, growth-supporting elements from humanistic theory have been incorporated into pastoral counseling, education, and parenting approaches ( Hanley and Abell, 2002 ; Horton-Parker, 1998 ; Shapiro, 1998 ).

The popularization of humanistic psychology and psychotherapy occurred when virtues of freedom and dignity were widely extolled. The humanistic approach was thus adopted into mainstream psychology and endures today as a vital force in the field. The movement created a meaningful platform for personal creativity, real therapeutic relationships, and a keen respect for individuals’ expertise about their lives.

What are the 3 forces of psychology in order?

Mind, Body & Soul: The Three Forces of Psychology What does it mean to be human? This question has fascinated thinkers in every corner of the world and throughout recorded history. It has been the subject of countless works of philosophy, literature, art and science, and yet the question remains unanswered.

  1. Humans are but animal, some have suggested (e.g.
  2. Darwin, Watson, Skinner), and we must be tempered with training and structure.
  3. We are conscious creatures, suggested others (e.g.
  4. Freud, James, Jung), and it is the depths of the mind that should be explored.
  5. Even so, a person is surely something more than just mind and body, observed others still (e.g.

Maslow, May, Rogers). We are beings with souls that exceed the sum of our parts. This debate stretches into the ages, and continues now, because indeed all three perspectives are true. Each reflects an essential dimension of human existence – mind, body, and spirit.

  • Together these perspectives offer a holistic picture of what it means to be a human being endowed with a physical body, evolved with a thinking mind, and imbued with an ever-unfolding and transcendent sense of self.
  • In the relatively recent age of science, each dimension has inspired one of three major movements in the field of psychology – Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and Humanistic Psychology.

While each force has been influential in its own right, none is able to fully illuminate the human experience on its own. We must understand all three if we are to grasp a more complete understanding of psychology and the nature human-kind. The human psyche may have been a subject of interest throughout history, but the pursuit of a formal psychological science did not emerge until the latter half of the 19th Century. In Vienna, a medical doctor named Sigmund Freud began treating patients for mysterious symptoms that seemed to manifest from within the mind.

Inspired by the practice of mesmerism, or hypnosis, Freud observed that the power of suggestion could be used to access hidden thoughts from a patient, or even alter how a person would later respond, Freud expanded on this idea to develop his own method for examining the hidden realm of the mind. It was called Psychoanalysis,

Freud’s most significant and enduring contribution to psychology is his model of the mind consisting of the unconscious (which he called the id), the conscious (known as the ego ), and the moral conscience (or super-ego) derived from the social environment,

  1. According to Freud, the unconscious is home to man’s most primal desires and exists outside of awareness.
  2. This includes the sexual impulse, or libido, which was the focus of Freud’s theory and much of early psychoanalysis.
  3. As the ego and superego developed in childhood, Freud believed that early life experiences prompted the repression of certain libidinal desires that were nonetheless making demands on the adult psyche.

This conflict was the source of many neurotic conditions. As psychoanalysis continued to evolve, Freud would eventually expand his ideas about the unconscious. An aggressive impulse was added, although the pleasure principle would remain a central theme of his theory,

  1. This psycho-sexual focus became a key point of debate within the psychoanalytic school and the medical community more broadly,
  2. A number of Freud’s contemporaries, including Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, and Freud’s daughter, Anna, would eventually divert from his theories and explore alternative sources of psychodynamic conflict.

For Freud’s successors, the human psyche included needs of love, acceptance, and power, environmental aspects such as a person’s place in society or style of living, Their expanded focus also placed a much greater emphasis on the ego than Freud had, and some Neo-Freudians began to recognize additional stages of development in adulthood, which also elevated the struggle between the conscious mind and the external world of the superego.

Although the theories and practices of psychoanalysis were intriguing, the movement faced significant challenges from the scientific community. Most prominent was the demand for empirical evidence of an unconscious mind and the methods used to access it, Freud had consistently described his theories with the language of the natural sciences, which were dominant in his time, His use of terms like “drive” and “force” even evoked the positivist empiricism of physics,

In truth, the individualized nature of its methods and the limitations of technology at the time meant that psychoanalysis could not offer such evidence for its claims. The desire for a more objective approach sparked the beginnings of another movement which emerged from the school of Wilhelm Wundt, founded in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. As the study of psychology spread in the United States, it would become increasingly influenced by the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin and the philosophy of pragmatism, These ideas inspired William James, a researcher at Johns Hopkins University, to publish his now classic volumes, Principles of Psychology, in which he built the foundations of American Psychology as a science concerned with the function of consciousness,

For the American Functionalists, biology and animal behavior became increasingly relevant as a source of knowledge, but this approach still required researchers to speculate about the intention of the animal or human under observation. Before long, these attempts to interpret consciousness were seen as preventing objective observation and limiting psychology from becoming a natural science,

Eventually, William James went so far as to ask if consciousness even existed, while others still held to the dualistic model of mind and body that had dominated psychology thus far. Meanwhile, in Russia, Ivan Pavlov had discovered the curious ability to produce involuntary behavioral responses that required no guesswork to understand.

  1. He had trained dogs to salivate at the sound of a buzzer, demonstrating what became known as classical conditioning,
  2. Pavlov’s work intrigued the functional psychologists when it was published in the United States, including John B.
  3. Watson, who would be inspired to write his famous manifesto, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,

In this short but influential article, Watson proposed to transform psychology into a science concerned only with observable behavior. Watson’s approach drew no distinction between animal and human, and framed psychology as a mechanistic, physiological science dealing with external phenomena that could be measured.

  1. He believed that understanding the relationship between stimulus and response (S-R) would allow science to predict how animals, including humans, would behave under similar conditions, and thus behavior could be controlled.
  2. However, a debate continued within the behavioral movement as some wondered if this kind of approach was adequate to explain human psychology.

Edward Tolman was among those who questioned behaviorism. As he observed, animals and humans were often unpredictable.58 To explain this variability, Tolman offered an alternative theory that inserted the organism into the S-R relationship (S-O-R). This approach examined the reason or intention for a behavior performed.

Tolman had recognized an important limitation of Watson’s methodological behaviorism and its exclusion of learning, motivation and cognition, but his solution had also reintroduced mentalism into the equation. By interpreting the intentions behind a behavior, the Tolman and other Neo-Behaviorists were essentially introspecting again.

This issue was later addressed by B.F. Skinner, whose theory of radical behaviorism helped to explain the full range of behavior in terms of S-R response, Skinner achieved this by introducing the concept of operant conditioning, which describes how voluntary, learned behaviors are reinforced by external as well as internal stimuli,

  • This theory allowed behaviorism to explain even the more complex human behaviors, such as language and even consciousness itself,
  • Through his research and writings, Skinner received considerable notoriety, and even a level of mainstream fame.
  • He’d achieved the goal of developing an empirical and replicable science of psychology.

However, in doing so, Skinner had reduced the field to little more than animal training. As such, psychology had lost its soul. By the 1960s, the field of psychology was reexamined once again. As that decade’s sweeping cultural change prompted some to challenge established norms, the theories of psychoanalysis and behaviorism seemed inadequate to meet the pressing questions of the time,

Those earlier movements had indeed produced a great deal of knowledge but their focus on abnormality and mental illness left many qualities of the human condition unexplored, Some psychologists, like Abraham Maslow, hoped to extend the focus of psychology by instead directing research at individuals who were flourishing,

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs described a path from basic functioning toward peak performance, or self-actualization, and became a key theory in the third movement known as Humanistic, Transpersonal, and Existential (HTE) Psychology, Humanistic psychology emerged from a pivotal meeting known as the Old Saybrook Conference, which took place in Connecticut in 1964.

  1. The assembled theorists advanced a new paradigm that recognized humans as having consciousness and able to consider their awareness of self and others subjectively,
  2. As such, human beings were described as uniquely capable of exceeding the mechanical inner workings of their bodies and minds.
  3. Among the speakers, Carl Rogers challenged the underlying philosophies of Behaviorism, Rollo May presented on the concept of intentionality as a central aspect of human will, and Maslow explored transcendent experience and the actualizing potential of humans for which he is best known.

In doing so, these leaders expanded the scope of psychology to embrace the subjective, individualistic nature of humanity, rather than to reduce and strip away this quality as had been done previously. In order to achieve a scientific study of subjective experience, HTE rested its foundation on the ideas of German philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, who developed ontological and epistemological theories based in the nature of being as an unfolding process of embodied existence, Like the theories each put forward, the three major psychological movements also produced methods of treatment that were influenced by the norms and concerns of their times. As Freud was beginning his practice of psychoanalysis, the treatment of mental illness had not yet developed outside of asylums, which served more as wards to remove patients from society than centers of healing,

  • Under these circumstances, the cases seen by Freud were primarily those of aristocrats, often women, and persons of means and education.
  • Thus the talking cure of psychoanalysis was born.
  • In psychoanalytic treatment, the therapist asks the patient to discuss memories and recall dreams in the process of free association,

The psychoanalyst acts as a guide and interpreter looking for meaning and connection to the unconscious, The key element of this method is the dynamic between patient and therapist known as transference, According to Freud’s theory, the patient reacts to the therapist in the role of caregiver and authority figure, projecting unconscious associations onto the relationship which may reveal themes from childhood or other repressed thoughts.

  • Likewise, the phenomenon of counter-transference occurs as the therapist may project his own unconscious onto the patient, which must be monitored carefully.
  • Psychodynamic talk therapy can take a great deal of time, and it is highly dependent on the patient’s ability to provide material for interpretation as well as process the insight gained.

As such, this approach was not always best positioned to treat severe mental disorders or to deliver timely relief of symptoms. By the time of the World Wars, behaviorism offered an attractive alternative for both the assessment of recruits and treatment of the more acute issues at hand in the aftermath of battle,

Through behavior modification techniques, patients could be trained, quite literally, to reduce maladaptive behaviors and adopt more successful responses. With the arrival of the computer age, behavioral treatments took on a new dimension in its updated model of the brain as a type of computer itself.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) maintains its focus on stimulus conditioning, but also recognizes the software-like programming of the mind which helps to determine responses, For example, dysfunctional thoughts can run like routines in the brain, leading to symptoms of depression and anxiety,

  • Social experiences may also influence the individual in ways that inhibit motivation,
  • The CBT approach is to identify and challenge these responses, offering a systematic program for developing new and more productive ways of thinking and behaving.
  • Although CBT has been a successful and widely adopted method of treatment, there is a somewhat impersonal aspect to this type of behavioral intervention.

In the light of humanistic thought, the prescriptive approaches of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism overlook the individual aspects of each patient in favor of an established norm. An alternative stance can be seen in the Person-Centered Therapy (PCT) of Carl Rogers, which influences much of humanistic treatment, The three major psychological movements — psychodynamic theory, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology — may first appear to be worlds apart. However, upon closer inspection, there is common ground to be found among these important forces. Concern for the humanistic side of the equation can be seen in Freud’s methods, which recognized individual differences in perception, such a repression and free association, as a cause and treatment of neurotic symptoms.

On the other hand, while behaviorism was largely opposed to any discussion of the mind, the insistence by some that consciousness and cognition should not be overlooked eventually led to the development and subsequent dominance of cognitive-behavioral psychology, where that domain’s closest connections with psychodynamic theory are found.

Psychoanalysis recognized that personality develops over time and life events may be internalized to influence relationships and experiences later in life. A similar concept is present in behaviorism, which recognizes the role of experience in conditioning behavioral responses.

This is seen even more clearly in cognitive-behavioral psychology where social learning and environmental factors are considered as stimuli that contribute toward development of mental schemas and automatic thoughts which may occur outside the realm of consciousness. At a more basic level, these approaches also share with humanistic psychology a concept the ongoing and evolving process of being.

Humanistic, Transpersonal, and Existential psychology is understood as a highly relational practice, as is evidenced in the work of noted theorists, Carl Rogers and Rollo May. In this approach, the connection between the therapist and the client is seen as paramount to the success of therapy.

  1. Similarly, psychoanalysis is dependent on the relational process of talk therapy, including the central mechanism of transference.
  2. In modern psychoanalysis, it is now recognized that the patient should be encouraged to make associations and draw connections more independently and with fewer interpretations from the analyst,

This is supported by empirical evidence that suggests fewer interpretations made by the analyst results in more effective therapy, Behaviorism was noted for its exclusive attention to stimuli and bodily responses. Even in its physiological rigidity, this perspective still shares some commonalities with its competing movements.

  1. For example, in psychoanalysis, Freud was attentive to the patient’s body during sessions when looking for nonverbal cues, but also in regard to the therapeutic posture that required a patient to lie on their back with the analyst seated behind and out of view.
  2. This position was not only to relax the patient, but also to prevent the therapist from influencing free associations with his own reactions.

Likewise, a tenet of humanistic research and practice requires the investigator to bracket personal opinions out of the process. The contributions of behaviorism are carried forward in HTE in other ways as well. Positive Psychology, which is often considered a subset of humanistic study, is rooted in the empirical and methodological foundations of behavioral science,

Sharing with HTE the interest in expanding human performance, positive psychology focuses primarily on empirical outcomes and methods which can deliver more immediate changes in behavior to promote flourishing of the individual. As psychology continues to evolve in this century, an integrative approach is key to the development of new theories, or perhaps the revival of ancient and more basic questions, which rest at the intersection of mind, body, and soul.

Since the first movement of psychoanalysis, it has been recognized that the mind is capable of producing injury to the body. Linking this notion with more recent perspectives, one might ask if the mind, or perhaps the spirit, can heal the body, Religious traditions have long maintained the connection between mind, body, and soul, and thus many practices that integrate these dimensions can be found in both Western and Eastern faith traditions.

  • Yoga, as an example, is a physical practice which is shown to produce mental clarity and even spiritual experience,
  • The embrace of this type of therapy in humanistic psychology has influenced the broader psychological and medical communities, as well as the culture at large, all of which are increasingly exploring the healing connection between mind and body.
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The transcendent spiritual benefits of religious faith and meditation are getting closer consideration as well. Questions about how these elements of human experience impact each other will require empirical study in the decades ahead, and each psychological movement is uniquely positioned to contribute to that knowledge.

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: Mind, Body & Soul: The Three Forces of Psychology

What is third force in developmental psychology?

Abraham Maslow started a movement referred to as third-force psychology. them) of behaviorism and psychoanalysis to deal fully with the human condition. was a model of humans that emphasized their uniqueness and their positive aspects. romanticism and existentialism and is called humanistic psychology.

What is the third force of psychoanalytic theory?

8 What is the relevance of psychoanalytic theory to understanding the experience of pain? – Psychoanalytic theory divides the psyche into three functions: the id—unconscious source of primitive sexual, dependency, and aggressive impulses; the superego—subconsciously interjects societal mores, setting standards to live by; and the ego—represents a sense of self and mediates between realities of the moment and psychic needs and conflicts.

  • Psychoanalytic writings discuss how pain frustrates the satisfaction of dependency and sexual needs as well as appropriate dissipation of aggressive feelings.
  • The blocked expression of these needs leads to inner turmoil.
  • However, when sanctioned as a bona fide physical problem, pain allows for unconscious gratification of ambivalent dependency needs.

Underlying anger may be expressed indirectly, in the form of passive-aggressive behaviors, whereby the patient holds family members and treating practitioner alike as hostages to endless complaints and demands for attention. The experiences of pain satisfy the superego’s need to suffer and atone.

What is the third and fourth force psychology?

Abstract – Transpersonal psychology, as the fourth force in psychology, has emerged from humanistic psychology (the third force) in much the same way that humanistic approaches emerged from their behavioral and analytic foundations. To address the role of transpersonal perspectives within the realm of humanistic psychology seems, therefore, a natural place to begin this discussion, for humanistic psychology represents an openness to all aspects of human nature and human beings: behavior, cognition, and affect as well as transcendent experience.

What is 1st 2nd 3rd force in psychology?

Headnote First, second,and third force psychologies were described in detail by Ernest Hilgard. First force was based on “Conditioning Theory” and is no longer used with human beings. Second force is based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and is presently used in this connection throughout the world.

Third force psychology is “Person Centered” and is based on Roger’s and Maslow’s theories. It was developed in the 1960s and is used throughout the world today. As a student of Ernest Hilgard of Stanford University for a number of years, and then in 1976 1 did a feature on his theory in Education, and later I did a second feature on a friend Publisher of Hilgard, and learned to know him as a friend,He insists that today there are clearly three distinct and independently organized theories of psychology, and that each one of those is directly related to the indepenedence demonstrated by individuals involved.

First Force Psychology First Force Psychology was developed in large part by B.F.Skinner (1969), and it is typically imposed by persons external to individuals involved. It employs a hypothetico-deductive method using behaviorism and a stimulus-response theory that is essential on a continuing bases for effectiveness.

  1. It is no longer used for human beings except for persons in a “Closed” NeuroPsychiatric Ward, or for prisoners in Solitary Confinement, because people never become fully cognitive in their general orientation through operant conditioning.
  2. Second Force Psychology Second Force Psychology is the theory underlying the use of psychoanalysis throughout the health care facilities of the world today (Taylor, 1992).

It derives directly from the early work of Sigmund Freud in the 1880s, and where “free association” is used to reveal areas and nature of “hurts” lying deep in one’s unconscious that serve to demobilize one’s full capacity. In theory when one becomes fully aware of the location and nature of such unconscious hurts, they can reconcile them in a reasoning and logical manner.

  • Second Force Psychlogy is typically used with Neuro-Psychiatric patients, or with addicted individuals with psychiatric problems evident.
  • The Cognitive Dissonance Test (Cassel & Chow) is designed to reveal the area and nature of such unconscious hurts.
  • A Psychologist or Counselor can then help the indivdual deal with each hurt individually.

Scientific Approach Using Cognitive.

What is the 4th force in psychology?

Origins – In 1968 Abraham Maslow was among the people who announced transpersonal psychology as a “fourth force” in psychology, in order to separate it from Humanistic psychology, Early use of the term “transpersonal” can also be credited to Stanislav Grof and Anthony Sutich,

What is the 3rd force of psychology examples?

This third force combines the philosophies of romanticism and existentialism and is called humanistic psychology. Focused on psychological acts such as judging, recollecting, expecting, doubting, fearing, hoping, or loving, and including the concept of intentionality within the acts.

What is meant by third force?

Third Force, a term referring to Canadians of neither British or French descent; see Multiculturalism in Canada § Incipient stage (pre-1971)

What is the meaning of three force?

: a grouping (as of political parties or international powers) intermediate between two opposing political forces

What is the three forces theory?

Full Text: First, second, and third force psychologies were described in detail by Ernest Hilgard. First force was based on “Conditioning Theory” and is no longer used with human beings. Second force is based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and is presently used in this connection throughout the world.

  • Third force psychology is “Person Centered” and is based on Roger’s and Maslow’s theories.
  • It was developed in the 1960s and is used throughout the world today.
  • As a student of Ernest Hilgard of Stanford University for a number of years, and then in 1976 I did a feature on his theory in Education, and later I did a second feature on a friend Publisher of Hilgard, and learned to know him as a friend,He insists that today there are clearly three distinct and independently organized theories of psychology, and that each one of those is directly related to the indepenedence demonstrated by individuals involved.

First Force Psychology First Force Psychology was developed in large part by B.F. Skinner (1969), and it is typically imposed by persons external to individuals involved. It employs a hypothetico-deductive method using behaviorism and a stimulus-response theory that is essential on a continuing bases for effectiveness.

  1. It is no longer used for human beings except for persons in a “Closed” Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, or for prisoners in Solitary Confinement, because people never become fully cognitive in their general orientation through operant conditioning.
  2. Second Force Psychology Second Force Psychology is the theory underlying the use of psychoanalysis throughout the health care facilities of the world today (Taylor, 1992).

It derives directly from the early work of Sigmund Freud in the 1880s, and where “free association” is used to reveal areas and nature of “hurts” lying deep in one’s unconscious that serve to demobilize one’s full capacity. In theory when one becomes fully aware of the location and nature of such unconscious hurts, they can reconcile them in a reasoning and logical manner.

  1. Second Force Psychlogy is typically used with Neuro-Psychiatric patients, or with addicted individuals with psychiatric problems evident.
  2. The Cognitive Dissonance Test (Cassel & Chow) is designed to reveal the area and nature of such unconscious hurts.
  3. A Psychologist or Counselor can then help the indivdual deal with each hurt individually.

Scientific Approach Using Cognitive Dissonance It was Leon Festinger of Stanford University (1957) who introduced “Cognitive Dissonance” as a substitute for “Free Association” as used by Freud, and defined it as “feelings of unpleasantness” which an individual possesses lying deep in the unconscious, and where the individual seldom if ever realizes the reasons for such feelings.

  1. The Cognitive Dissonance Test was developed based on the Festinger theory to serve as a means for helping individuals discover the areas and nature of “cognitive dissonance;” so that on a conscious level they might help to plan for ways to eliminate such hurts.
  2. The Psychologist and even the Guidance Counselor are capable of employing the same theory being used by the Psychiatrist in Psychoanalysis, but in a much more simplified manner.

Four of the eight part scores are included within the Internal and Personal areas of life; while the other four are from the External and Impersonal areas of one’s life space. A Confluence Score (CON) is included to insure that the items on the DISS test are really read and understood.I.

  1. Internal & Personal: 1.
  2. Home & Family-HOM 2.
  3. Emotional Development-EMO 3.
  4. Moral Development-MOR 4.
  5. Health & Well-being-HEA 5.
  6. School & Learning-SCH Part I Total-IPTOT II.
  7. External & Impersonal: 6.
  8. Social Affiliation-SOC 7.
  9. Survival & Power-SUR 8.
  10. Racial & Social Class-RAC Part II Total-EITOT DISS Total Score-DISTOT Confluence Score-CON Eight Part Scores Home & Family-the period involving the early rearing of the child and the support system that is involved in that period of life.

Emotional Development-the feeling and emotional development in relation to interaction with others. Moral Development-acceptance and following of the rules and laws of the land and becoming a role model for others. Health & Well-being-physical and mental health of individual as displayed in the personal development process.

  • School & Learning-educational and learning process and ability to use such development.
  • Social Affiliations-the interrelations between the individual and the rest of society.
  • Survival & Power-the continued growth of an individual and ability to manipulate the environment and others.
  • Race and Social Class-the general acceptance of all others and the ability to interact in a meaningful way with them.

The DISS Test Profile The Cognitive Dissonance Test Profile as depicted in Figure 1 below serves as the basis for interpreting the scores from the test. Generally, the profile is designed to be meaningful to subjects in high school and as adults without other assistance.

  1. The two main features for interpretation are: (1) raw score, and (2) DISS profile.
  2. Raw Score Immediately under the norm profile on Figure 1 below are the raw scores for all part and total scores on DISS.
  3. All eight part scores (HOM, INN, EMO.
  4. MOR, etc.) range from 0 to 100; so that a score of 50, for example, is just half or 50 percent of what it might be.

They are raw scores and not percentiles, and may be added and multiplied. The purpose for the raw scores is to enable an individual to determine own strengths and weaknesses in relation to need presence as measured by cognitive dissonance in the eight different parts of the test.

  • Average “cognitive dissonance” is estimated to be represented by a score of 50, and scores above 50 represents above average, and below 50 as being below average (this in relation to the 25 items in each of the 8 part scores).
  • The average here is in reference to self; not to some corresponding norm of individuals.

The total scores (IPTOT, EITOT, and DISTOT) are always the sum of the respective part scores. The Normed Profile The norm profile immediately above the raw scores in Figure 1 below, is based on group data for two different kinds of individuals: youth, and adults.

It uses a McCalley T-Score, (normalized standard score) ranging from 20 to 80 (running up and down the left side of the profile) with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. Average scores range from 40 to 60 and include 68 percent of the norm group. Scores above 60 are considered to be above average in relation to a group of peers, and include the top 16 percent of the norm group.

Scores below 40 are considered to be below average, and include the bottom 16 percent of norm group. Always, the higher the score, the greater the presence of cognitive dissonance. Confluence Score (CON) The “Confluence score (CON) consists of 21 pairs of items, all of them are part of the 200 true/false items in the DISS test, but are scored separately by the computer.

About half of those 21 pairs of items are opposites; so that if a person answers one of those pairs one way, but fails to answer the second item of the paired-opposites in a different way (true or false) there is a lack of confluence in the test results. This, of course, means creditability not only of the test data, but also of the person taking the DISS test.

These items represent an assigned task to person taking the DISS test; so the Confluence Scores is a measure of trustworthiness (degree to which items were actually read or even understood). This score is typically not shared with person taking the test, and is used only as a validity index of test data, and trust worthiness of person taking test.

  • The interpretation of the Confluence Score is as follows: 1.
  • If subject receives a score of 13 or higher, the test data is considered to be invalid, and subject is asked to take the test a second time.2.
  • Scores from 10 to 13 show that the test data is acceptable and reliable.3.
  • Scores from 1 to 9 are considered to represent individuals that have done an outstanding job in reading and understanding dynamics involved, and shows better than average intelligence-depicting relatedness of 11 pairs of items in varying degrees of unrelatedness.

Comparing Delinquents & Non-Delinquents In Tables 1 and 2 below the mean score on DISS for Delinquents and Typical Individuals are compared by use of a t-statistics. Every single score, except the Confluence Score, showed a statistical difference with the Delinquents showing greater Cognitive Dissonance.

It should be remember that data for individuals with a Confluence Score greater than 13 were not included in the data. Confluence Score The correlations in Table 3 below show the inter-correlations between the Confluence Score and other data. It is clear that the CON score is first a measure of the validity of the DISS scores, and second the creditability of the Test Taker-whether h/ she read and understood the test items.

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All data for individuals with CON scores of 13 or higher were eliminated from this data. It is important to note that the CON score correlates significantly with all other data shown; so it could be used as a reliable index of any of the other data, including AGE, and Gender.

DISS Profile The DISS Profile is shown in Figure 1 below. This is the profile of a Typical Individual in relation to the appropriate norm for such individual. This profile is for a Typical Male Youth, and using the Male/Youth Norm. The CON score is 4 out of the 21 pairs. Any such score below 7 depicts an exceedingly responsible individual.

Note that all 8 part scores are well below the 50 which would be average Dissonance in relation to the test content; while the profile depicted in relation to Typical Male Youth except for LIF (Life Pursuits);which is about average in relation to other Male Youth.

Third Force Psychology & Typical Individuals Third Force Psychology, only old since the 1960s, derived largely from Carl Rogers and his client centered therapy, and was a first uniquely American challenge to the psychoanalytic technique (Taylor, 1992). Gordon Allport, Gardner Murphy, Henry A. Murray, and Abraham Maslow all made valuable contributions to the new Third Force Psychology.

The DSM-IV studies, one of the greatest health care research studies of all times, showed how Personal Development (Global Assessment Functioning Scale) is central to one’s effective social, family, and occupational functioning. The Personal Development Test (PDT) (Cassel & Chow, 2002b) was developed to depict the Global Assessment Functioning in a meaningful and effective manner.

  • It is designed to assess the readiness of prison inmates for parole, and what might be needed to make such individuals more risk-free for parole success.
  • The PDT serves to bring science to our prisons processes for the first time in history.
  • Predicting parole success is no longer a guess.
  • Personal Development It is clear that “personal Development” is a much better description of what was developed in DSM-III and DSM-IV as “Global Functioning.” This, to be sure, includes the basis for academic success in high school and college; for it is during those adolescent years when individuals seek to make a transition from child to adult, and where accountability in our high schools must include plans and activities for their personal development.

Effective academic achievement can only emerge when personal development of student is present, and there are no exceptions to that very basic rule. In a similar manner it is an excellent index for success as a Prison Parole. Incarcerated Juvenile Delinquents and Prison Inmates Today we have one million high school dropout students in our prisons, and another million that have not gone to college, with large sampling of African American and Hispanic students present.

These two later populations have a lower literacy rate than do the rest of the prison population. Our prison population has doubled in the last 10 years, and continues to increase. The use and involvement of alcohol and drugs as the basis for imprisonment is excessive; for example, in San Diego in the year 2000 4 our of every 5 arrests involved alcohol and drugs.

Our high schools must take immediate action to curb delinquency and crime, and it must include programs for the Personal Development of students. Prisons must do the same if they plan to increase the parole readiness of such individuals. High School and College Drop-out Norm Base Every one of the incarcerated Juvenile Delinquents represent a high school dropout, or “at-“risk” youngster for drop-out prevention purposes.

The adult Prison Population serves as an excellent high school and college dropout norm base; since one million of the prison population represent high school drop-outs, i.e., individuals who have failed to graduate from high school. Few of the other million prison inmates have graduated from college; so they represent a dropout in relation to college as well.

Therefore, our prison population serves as an excellent basis for predicting high school and college drop-outs; so we can begin identifying the “at-risk” students, and which serves as a parole success index as well. The Personal Development Test (PDT) The Personal Development Test (PDT) (Cassel and Chow, 2002) was designed to provide a functional basis for assessing the Global Functioning of individuals, and it is based on John Dewey’s definition of a Democracy-The Interdependence of independent individuals (Dewey, 1938). Personal Maturity-PERMAT: 1. Self-efficacy-EFF 2. Coping Skills-COP 3. Positive Assertiveness-ASS 4. Locus of Control-LOC Total PERMAT: Social Integration-SOCINT: 5. Team Member-TEA 6. Sympathy-SYM 7. Self-esteem-EST 8. Caring-CAR Total SOCINT: Total PDTTOT Confluence Score-CON Description of the PDT 8 Part Scores 1.

Self-efficacy-the full exercise of control through high personal expectations with the necessary expansion of one’s actions to complete task successfully.2. Coping Skills-individual’s possession and ability to develop and use manipulative skills needed to complete many different kinds of tasks successfully.3.

Positive Assertiveness-begins with character education that includes the evils of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs, and with goal setting using positive actions directed at offensive and defensive strategies for goal attainment.4. Locus of Control-full acceptance and belief that personal success is not a matter of ‘luck,’ but scientific decision making focused squarely on life goals.5.

  • Team Member-an individual’s continuous acceptance and actions are always in full agreement with values and practices of own group membership, and the team spirit.6.
  • Sympathy-an individual’s continued ability and practice to empathize and feel the pleasures and pains of all people and animals, and the ability to share those feelings.7.

Self-esteem-an individual’s perception of peers’ depicted worth or feelings of importance of self, and ability and willingness to be a full team member.8. Caring-whatever happens to one person or animal anywhere in the world is of great importance to all people everywhere.

PDT Profile The PDT Profile is shown in Figure 2 below. The numbers immediately below the profile are raw scores for the PDT test. The Part Scores range from 1 to 100; so that a score of 50, for example, is just half of what it might be, and the higher the score the better the Personal Development. By examining those scores an individual is able to get a realistic estimate of how well h/she is doing in relation to the PDT test.

The Profile above those numbers is based on a McCally Standard Score (T-Score) that ranges from 20 to 80, and is a comparison with one of the six different select norm groups: (1) Adults-Male, Female, or General; and (2) Youth-Male, Female, or General.

The “General” norm Includes both male and female individuals; as laws in the united States require the use of such norms in certain situations. The top 16 % have scores above 60, and the bottom 16 percent have scores below 40. An average score includes 68% of norm group and ranges from 40 to 60. By examining the profile, an individual gets a realistic estimate of self in comparison to one of the six norms.

Confluence Score The notion for the Confluence Score derives from the LIE Score in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (1970), and makes use of 21 pairs of the PDT 200 test items-half of which are direct opposites, and the other half lack agreement with each others in varying degrees.

  • Since the 2 items in each of the 21 pairs are either opposites or lack agreement with each other; the Contingency Score is a measure of the degree to which the Test Taker agrees with self in the taking of the test.
  • If h/she marks one of those items in each of the 21 pairs one way, to agree with fact, h/she must mark the second item of the pair in the opposite direction.

Thus, the “Confluence Score” is a measure of agreement with self of the Test Taker. Thus, it is a measure of creditability not only for the test results, but also of the test taker. (Cassel & Blackwell, 2001). The validity of the Confluence scores is very high as depicted in the data in Table 4 below.

Every single score on the PDT correlates negatively at the 0.000 level of confidence with the Confluence Score, and could be used as a substitute for the PDT Test Scores effectively. It also correlates negatively at the 0.000 level of confidence with the Grade Point Average (GPA) of students with an r = -0.262, showing that the better students receive lower Confluence Scores.

It represents a real “break through” in the use of computers to test the validity of psychological tests. Parole Readiness Today we have maybe Two million prison inmates in the United States, with one million being high school drop-out students. About 80% of these inmates are addicted to substance abuse or drugs, and less than 25% respond effectively to treatment programs.

  1. Typically, veteran addicts are considered to be Neuro-Psychiatric Patients, and where Second Force Psychology is most effective basis for treatment.
  2. When and if they are able to escape the addiction, they clearly become Third Force Psychology patients or individuals, and it is only then when they become eligible for successful parole.

Confluence Score The first requisite for parole readiness is a Confluence Score of less than 13. When records of individuals with scores greater than 13 are included in a group analysis of data for either DISS or PDT the reliability of test scores is no longer statistically significant.

  1. If parole readiness means that the individual’s Personal Development is more like Typical Individuals than it is like that of Prison Inmates, there is asatisfactory indication of parole readiness.
  2. The data in Table 5 below shows that when the PDTTOT Score is 390 or less, an individual is not ready for being paroled.

Table 1 Comparing the DISS Means by Use of a t-Statistic (N = 116 Delinqent Boys, and 215 Typical High School Students) DISS Delinquent Typical H S Scores Boys Students Difference t-Statistics Home & Family-HOM: M 55.04 35.39 20.25 11.525 SD 9.69 17.53 Inner Development-INN: M 51.31 42.14 9.17 6.218 SD 9.94 14.10 Personal Adjustment-PER: M 52.90 43.94 8.96 6.265 SD 9.50 13.71 Health and Well-Being-HEA: M 53.14 42.29 10.85 7.183 SD 7.15 15.39 Internal & Personal-IPTOT: M 212.90 167.98 44.92 10.762 SD 22.09 47.48 School & Learning-SCH: M 53.00 39.61 13.39 8.265 SD 9.36 16.03 Social Affiliation-SOC: M 52.55 37.73 14.82 10.718 SD 8.47 13.53 Survival & Power-SUR: M 57.43 42.38 15.05 10.723 SD 7.77 13.99 Racial & Class-RAC: M 53.41 47.42 5.99 3.674 SD 8.04 16.53 External & Impersonal-EITOT: M 216.40 167.98 108.42 10.407 SD 21.69 47.48 DISS Total Score-DISTOT: M 426.60 328.17 98.43 10.738 SD 49.07 91.86 Confluence Score-CON: M 10.55 9.93 0.062 1.427 SD 5.23 5.23 DISS Scores Probability Home & Family-HOM: M 0.000 SD Inner Development-INN: M 0.000 SD Personal Adjustment-PER: M 0.000 SD Health and Well-Being-HEA: M 0.000 SD Internal & Personal-IPTOT: M 0.000 SD School & Learning-SCH: M 0.000 SD Social Affiliation-SOC: M 0.000 SD Survival & Power-SUR: M 0.000 SD Racial & Class-RAC: M 0.000 SD External & Impersonal-EITOT: M 0.000 SD DISS Total Score-DISTOT: M 0.000 SD Confluence Score-CON: M n.s.

SD Table 2 Comparing the DISS Mean Scores by Use of a t-Statistic (N = 57 Delinquent Girls, and 215 Typical High School Students) DISS Delinquent Typical H S Scores Girls Students Difference t-Statistic Home & Family-HOM: M 53.26 35.39 17.87 7.431 SD 9.11 17.53 Inner Development-INN: M 48.49 42.14 6.35 3.285 SD 7.21 14.10 Personal Adjustment-PER: M 48.63 43.94 4.69 2.448 SD 8.81 13.71 Health & Well-Being-HEA: M 50.04 42.29 7.75 3.699 SD 6.93 15.39 Internal & Personal-IPTOT: M 200.42 163.72 36.70 5.863 SD 16.47 46.44 School & Learning-SCH: M 51.44 39.61 11.83 5.268 SD 10.65 16.03 Social Affiliation-SOC: M 52.40 37.73 14.67 7.765 SD 8.75 13.53 Survival & Power-SUR: M 56.04 42.38 13.66 7.100 SD 7.45 13.99 Race & Class:RAC: M 52.0 47.42 4.58 2.010 SD 9.04 16.53 External & Impersonal-EITOT: M 211.90 167.98 33.92 6.874 SD 15.86 47.48 DISS Total Score-DISTOT: M 412.32 328.17 84.15 6.833 SD 26.41 91.86 Confluence Score-CON: M 10.63 9.93 0.70 1.749 SD 2.66 2.70 DISS Scores Probability Home & Family-HOM: M 0.000 SD Inner Development-INN: M 0.001 SD Personal Adjustment-PER: M 0.015 SD Health & Well-Being-HEA: M 0.000 SD Internal & Personal-IPTOT: M 0.000 SD School & Learning-SCH: M 0.000 SD Social Affiliation-SOC: M 0.000 SD Survival & Power-SUR: M 0.000 SD Race & Class:RAC: M 0.045 SD External & Impersonal-EITOT: M 0.000 SD DISS Total Score-DISTOT: M 0.000 SD Confluence Score-CON: M n.s.

SD Table 3 Pearson Correlations of DISS Scores (N=2212) Variable (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) AGE 1000 GENDER -196 1000 HOM -179 149 1000 INN -177 102 529 1000 PER -213 081 456 691 1000 HEA -143 043 497 594 718 1000 IPTOT -215 111 768 817 856 849 1000 SCH -140 220 531 496 468 511 612 SOC -201 162 513 608 633 606 715 SUR -180 174 467 564 621 640 694 RAC -270 166 547 569 555 516 666 EITOT -239 220 607 664 680 675 798 DISTOT -234 166 733 781 803 803 949 CON -214 171 415 477 456 420 536 Variable (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) AGE GENDER HOM INN PER HEA IPTOT SCH 1000 SOC 556 1000 SUR 541 654 1000 RAC 566 635 630 1000 EITOT 787 847 840 845 1000 DISTOT 738 810 801 796 925 1000 CON 426 490 439 525 550 582 * r = 0.062 sig 05 level, and 0.081 sig.01 level Table 4 Pearson r’s of the PDT Scores and Other Data (N=2131) Data & Scores (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 1.AGE 1000 2.

GENDER -062 1000 3. GRADE 529 -040 1000 4. EFF 154 -165 091 1000 5. COP 129 -269 113 422 1000 6. ASS 191 -182 164 341 494 1000 7. LOC 131 -277 108 401 570 393 1000 8. PERMAT 188 -294 152 601 837 708 795 9. TEA 109 -264 097 342 327 125 454 10. SYM 149 -348 116 335 507 362 476 ll. EST 153 -101 142 412 458 414 458 12.

CAR 037 -093 017 370 404 298 394 13. SOCINT 091 -113 081 249 271 205 302 14. PDTTOT 185 305 152 599 765 609 757 15. CON -146 215 -139 -395 -426 -350 -450 16. GPA -089 -191 -042 247 261 142 217 Data & Scores (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) 1.AGE 2. GENDER 3.

  1. GRADE 4. EFF 5. COP 6. ASS 7. LOC 8.
  2. PERMAT 1000 9.
  3. TEA 437 1000 10.
  4. SYM 571 363 1000 ll.
  5. EST 594 302 288 1000 12.
  6. CAR 498 335 444 446 1000 13.
  7. SOCINT 368 305 378 374 390 1000 14.
  8. PDTTOT 930 594 693 705 683 468 1000 15.
  9. CON -550 -330 -336 -443 -303 -249 -559 16.
  10. GPA 276 120 209 161 193 236 274 Data & Scores (15) 1.AGE 2.

GENDER 3. GRADE 4. EFF 5. COP 6. ASS 7. LOC 8. PERMAT 9. TEA 10. SYM ll. EST 12. CAR 13. SOCINT 14. PDTTOT 15. CON 1000 16. GPA -262 * The 05 Sig of r = 0.062, and 01 sig. = 0.081 Table 5 T-Score Equivalencies of Prediction PDF Scores of High-Risk Students T- EFF COP ASS LOC PER- TEA SYM EST CAR SOC Score MAT INT 45 40 50 47 54 49 186 35 42 52 54 192 30 50 25 20 T- PDT CON Score TOT 45 40 390 10 35 30 25 20 References Cassel, R.N.

(200la). Third Force Psychology used to foster Hall-Mareks for success serves as the basis for delinquency and crime prevention. Education, 121(4), 642-648. Cassel, R.N. (2001b). Second Force Psychology to assess cognitive dissonance areas and restore full service to Delinquents and Prison Inmates. Education, 121(4),649-651.

Cassel, R.N., & Chow, P. (2002a). The Cognitive Dissonance Test (DISS). Chula Vista, California: The Cassel Research Institute. Cassel, R.N., & Chow, P.(2002b). The Personal Development Test (PDT). Chula Vista, California: The Cassel Research Institute. Cassel, R.N., & Blackwell, J.

  • 2001).The LIE Score on the PDT serves as an index for creditability of Test Taker and Test Results.
  • Education, 122(2), 296-298.
  • Dewey, John (1938).
  • Experience in Education.
  • New York: MacMillan DSM-IV (1994).
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
  • Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. New York: Harper and Row. Hathaway, S.R., & McKinley, J.C. (1970). Multiphasic Inventory (MMPI). New York: The Psychological Corporation. Hilgard, E.R. (1977). Psychology’ s influence on educational practices: A puzzling history. Skinner, B.F. (1969). Contingency management in the classroom. Education, 90(2), 93.10-0. Taylor, Eugene (1992). Transpersonal Psychology: It’s Several Virtues. The Humanistic Psychologist, 20(2), 285-300. Russell N. Cassel, Ed.D, ABPP, FASP, The Cassel Research Institute, (Where Today is Tomorrow in Health Care), Chula Vista.

Who is the father of the third force in psychology?

Abraham Maslow is considered to be the father of Humanistic Psychology,also known as the ‘Third Force’.

What is the fifth force in psychology?

In the past decade, a fifth force ( social justice and advocacy ) has been widely acknowledged. An integrative, inclusive, and holistic conceptualization of psychotherapy is presented as an emerging sixth force.

What are the 3 forces that shaped by personality?

The Process of Personality Development In this article, we take a closer look at how personalities develop. In doing so, we will look at multiple theories that are usually discussed within the psychology field. We will also look more closely at three of the main influences cited, including heredity, environment, and situations.

How Do Personalities Develop? Within the field of psychology, personality has been studied for many years. Psychologists have been conducting research in the field by engaging in experiments, case studies, self-reported research, and clinical research. As early as the mid-1700s, researchers began making evaluations and trying to learn more about personality.

Over the years, various people have conducted research into personality development, and each has his or her own ideas regarding it. Some viewpoints share similarities, and all attempt to explain why people are the way they are and how they got that way.

  • type theories, the psychological differences and classifications of people;
  • psychoanalytic, our interactions with other mechanisms;
  • behaviorist, which looks at what impacts our personality from the outside;
  • social cognitive, involving the process of thinking and judging;
  • humanistic, which looks at our “free will” to do things.

The mission of each research method is to learn as much as possible about how personalities develop, with some of the findings building off of prior theories.

  • Words to Know
  • Psychology: the study of the mind and behavior, dating back to 1653.
  • Cognitive: the functions of thinking, reasoning, and remembering.
  • Temperament: the individual’s emotional response and sensitivities

Multiple Theories in Psychology Throughout this article, you will be introduced to the multiple theories that exist in the field on personality psychology. Some of the more popular ones, such as personality type, you may be more familiar with than others.

It is still important to learn about some of the other theories out there. There are three main influences on personality development that we are going to look at in this lesson. Those are heredity, environment, and situation. Heredity: This refers to the influences on your personality that you are born with.

They are in your genes and there is not much you can do to change these traits. They can include your temperament, which helps to determine how you react to situations and how easygoing you are. In kids, it may affect how well they get along with others.

  • Genetics, of course, also determines how someone looks.
  • Environment: Our environment is the nurturing aspect of our lives.
  • It is the type of environment in which we live and grow up.
  • Environment would include home, school, work, or other places that you spend a lot of time.
  • Environmental factors also include such things as languages, religion, etc.

Situations: These are the experiences that each individual person goes through. The various things that people experience will leave imprints on and help to develop his or her personality. Everything from divorce, death, trauma, and even happy times fit into the “situations” category of shaping one’s personality.

You have most likely at some point in your life heard someone say that people are a “product of their environment.” This means their personality has been greatly influenced by the three things we just looked at. They were born with particular traits, and their living situation and any impacting situations they experienced all helped to create who they are.

Genes or Experiences? Many people wonder if one’s personality primarily comes down to nature versus nurture. This is a debate that has waged for quite some time. Is someone’s personality determined more by genes and heredity or childhood experiences and situations? The nature vs.

Nurture debate is one that does not have a clear winner. Researchers believe there is no way to tell which influences personality more. They go hand in hand to help develop someone’s personality. The Developing Personality As you can see, how one’s personality develops is not as simple as just saying that it is one thing; however, th ere is one thing that most researchers seem to agree on: one’s childhood lays the foundation for the personality that one will have as an adult.

The genes we are born with, coupled with the environment we are brought up in and the situations we live through, all work together. They end up creating the personality you see as an adult. In this article, we will begin to look at the stages of development that help to create who we are.

These stages of development begin when we are children and play a key role in shaping our personalities. While there are quite a few theories regarding development, some of them are more popularly known than others, such as the Freudian stages of development, as well as Erik Erikson’s stages of development.

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Here, we will look at both of these different theories. Sigmund Freud’s Stages of Development You have probably heard of Sigmund Freud. If not, you will likely hear his name from here on out. His is one of the most widely known names in the field of psychology.

  1. While he is considered to be a great contributor to the field, he also is quite controversial.
  2. He had many theories that people thought were a little off or even completely wrong.
  3. All the same, he made contributions to the field of personality psychology, as well as many other areas in the field, so they are worth learning about.

Some of the theories that he lay out were later expanded upon by other psychologists, while still others set out to prove those theories invalid. Freud’s theory of personality development was that it was a result of a series of stages during childhood.

He believed that the development process involved a pleasure-seeking source that revolved around psychosexual energy. His stages of development include: Oral stage, This is the first stage, which begins at birth. Calling it the “oral stage” makes sense because it is often oral fixation that soothes babies; e.g., bottle, nipple, pacifier.

The child seeks oral gratification in order to gain pleasure. During this stage, if a child does not have its oral needs met, for example, not being fed when crying, he or she learns to not trust. If children have those needs met, they learn to trust those around them.

  1. Anal stage.
  2. This is the next stage in Freud’s theory of child development.
  3. It focuses on learning to control bowel movements and maintain bladder control.
  4. When children gain this ability, they feel independent and a sense of accomplishment.
  5. This stage is affected by how parents approach potty training.
  6. If they punish and ridicule or are very strict, the child can go on to be anal-retentive and have such personality traits as being obsessive, rigid, etc.

This stage lasts up until the child is around 3 years old. Phallic stage. During this stage the focus is on the genitals. This is when males and females realize there is a difference. Freud believed that the girls suffered from “penis envy” because they were not males and that boys were in competition with their fathers to get their mothers’ attention.

  1. This stage lasts until the child is around 5.
  2. Latent period.
  3. This was believed to be an important period in personality development, when children focus on relationships with their peers, finding hobbies they enjoy, and pursuing interests.
  4. This stage takes place from age 6 to about 12.
  5. Genital stage.
  6. This final stage starts when the child is about 12 years old.

It is the period that children go through puberty and start gaining sexual interest. In this stage, the child begins to establish an interest in other people and, in turn, become well-balanced. Freud’s stages of psychosexual development may seem a little odd at first, but for a while they were all that people had to go off of.

  1. Did you know?
  2. Have you ever heard the term Freudian slip ?
  3. A Freudian slip is a slip of the tongue that is motivated by and reveals some unconscious aspect of the mind, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary.

For example, someone is looking at a spot of jelly on someone’s face as they are speaking. The person then says “I need three pages of that jelly signed.” Rather than saying “I need three pages of that document signed.” Erik Erikson’s Stages of Development Another popular psychologist in the field was Erik Erikson.

  • His stages of development focused on trying to provide a theory on social development.
  • He was influenced by Sigmund Freud.
  • Erikson’s stages of development did not stop when a child turned 18.
  • He believed that the person continued to develop and have personality outcomes into adulthood as well.
  • His stages of development, considered his contribution to personality development, included: Infancy,

In this stage, the focus is trust versus mistrust. Hope is the virtue that comes out of this stage, as the child learns to trust or mistrust his caretakers.18 months to 3 years. In this autonomy versus shame stage, the virtues gained are self-control and courage.

It is the stage in which we learn to walk, talk, eat, and gain small motor control, as well as learning toilet training. This is a vulnerable stage. If parents are harsh, especially during potty training, it may create a child with low self-esteem.3 to 5 years, This is the initiative versus guilt stage, in which children copy the adults around them.

They also take the initiative to play on their own. Children learn to do some things on their own, such as get dressed. If children feel guilty about doing these things, they will have difficulties later.6 to 12 years. This is the industry versus inferiority stage, and the virtues gained are method and competence.

Children in this stage compare their own worth to those around them and may feel inferior if they do not measure up.12 to 18 years. Identity versus role confusion is the outcome of this stage, with the virtues being devotion and fidelity. At this stage, peer relationships are most important and these teens question themselves.

As they are trying to figure out who they are and what their plans are, they can experience role confusion if their parents are pushing a different version of themselves than they may feel.18 to 35 years. The development outcome in this stage is intimacy and solidarity versus isolation.

The basic strengths are love and affiliation. It is the stage that we seek out a satisfying relationship and start a family. If someone is not successful in this quest, he or she may turn to isolation.35 to 55 years or so. This is the stage that people often feel they have a “mid-life crisis.” It is the generativity versus self-absorption or stagnation stage.

This is the stage in which people often size up all they have done thus far and measure to see if they feel they have accomplished enough.55 or so until death. The basic strength in this stage is wisdom, and the ego outcome is integrity versus despair.

At this stage, if people look back upon their lives and experiences and are pleased, they feel integrity, while those who are not feel despair. As you can see, there are many stages that are believed to go into personality development. You may even be able to identify some of your own experiences in these stages.

Need a Little Personality? By now you have begun to get an idea of what personality is and how it develops over time. You have delved into some of the influences that exist, such as heredity, environment, and situations. You have also started looking at some of the stages of development and have learned how the things we experience during those stages can impact your personality.

  • In this article, you will be introduced to “needs.” In discussing what needs are, you will also learn about how they affect one’s personality development.
  • We will also look at research within the field of psychology that pertains to needs. Needs vs.
  • Wants When it comes to determining what needs are, it is important to distinguish them from wants.

Needs are those things that are necessities to someone, while wants are those things that people can do without, but they just have a strong desire to have. Examples of needs include basic food, water, shelter, health care, basic clothing, breathing, etc.

They are the essential things in life that we need in order to survive. Examples of wants include those things that you feel will improve the quality of your life, but you can survive without having. These things include dining out, Internet, computers, movies, vacations, fashion clothing, makeup, cable television, new cars, etc.

See the difference between needs and wants? When it comes to your breakfast tomorrow morning, you need food, and something basic will do. However, you may want to dine out at IHOP to get a Belgian waffle topped with whipped cream. Believe it or not, psychologists believe that needs impact your personality.

  • Consider this for a moment: If you lacked shelter, do you think it would impact your personality and the way you act? It absolutely would! You may suffer from low self-esteem, among other things.
  • If all your basic needs are being met, you will feel more comfortable in life, which will make you feel more secure and confident, and your personality will reflect this.

What if all your wants were being met? As is often the case, when people get just about everything they want, it may also affect their personality. They may be over-confident or arrogant, act superior to others, or, in the case of children, act like spoiled brats.

  1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs To help put this all together we need to take a look at Abraham Maslow’s famous Hierarchy of Needs.
  2. Maslow was a psychologist who in 1943 proposed his idea of the hierarchy of needs and how it affects who we are.
  3. The Hierarchy of Needs is in a triangle shape, with the most important things being at the bottom and then it works its way up, with needs narrowing as you go along.

Here are the layers of the hierarchy: Physiological: These are the most important needs that must be met. They include food, water, breathing, excretion, sleep, sex, etc. Safety: Once your basic needs have been met, the next most important thing is safety.

  1. In this layer, you will need security, employment, family, property, health, morality, etc.
  2. Love and belonging: This layer in the hierarchy is smaller but still important.
  3. It includes the love and social relationships we have with people, including friends, family, and lovers.
  4. Esteem: This is the layer that deals with your confidence.

What matters here is that people respect you, your self-esteem is high, you respect other people, experience personal growth and accomplishment, etc. Self-actualization: This is the need at the top of the triangle. It represents the idea that people are self-aware.

  • The idea is that people focus on fulfilling their own potential and no longer worry so much about what others think.
  • At this point, people are concerned with their own personal growth.
  • Maslow believed, much like the stages of development that we have already studied, that people gradually moved through these stages.

Starting at the bottom, when each need is met in that level, we go on to the next. However, if something were to threaten our needs, such as not having food or safety, etc., we can easily go back down the hierarchy. If our needs are not being met, it can have a profound impact on our personality development.

If all of our needs are being met, we will progress and continue to grow. Essentially, Maslow believed that we do not advance to the next level until the needs of each have first been met. For example, if someone is at the safety level, they cannot advance to love and belonging until all of their safety needs have been met.

Now you have an idea of the difference between needs and wants, why needs are so important, and how it all affects our personality development. : The Process of Personality Development

What are the five forces of psychology?

ISBN 13: 9781463116514 In any counseling or psychology program, classes in theory are arguably some of the most important and relevant courses of study. Lessons in theoretical insight provide the foundation needed to understand the dynamics of human behavior and choose the therapeutic approach most appropriate to specific clients and situations.

Counseling and psychology theories are often grouped into five key approaches, known as the “Five Forces”: Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Existential-Humanistic, Multicultural, and Social Justice. This video collection helps effectively link theory to practice by offering demonstrations that deconstruct these key theories.

Each of the films (120 minutes) in this series includes an interview with leading therapists in the field, followed by a demonstrative counseling session and a debriefing session. Included videos: (1) The Five Forces of Counseling: First Force, Psychoanalytic.

(5) The Five Forces of Counseling: Fifth Force, Social Justice.Published and distributed by Microtraining Associates.Public Performance Rights

All films purchased from Microtraining Associates include Public Performance Rights, allowing an institution to exhibit a legally-acquired copy, so long as: No admission fee/donation is collected. The screening takes place at the purchasing venue itself.

What is the strongest force in human psychology?

Tony Robbins – ‘The strongest force in the human personality is the need to stay consistent in how we define ourselves.’ – Tony Robbins | Facebook.

What is one of the strongest forces in psychology?

13 Powerful Psychological Forces That Make You Do Bad Things Given the right circumstances, good people can get caught up in some bad things. More often than not, psychology is to blame. When it comes to sketchy behavior, good people don’t tend to go right off the deep end like Bernie Madoff or Kenneth Lay.

  1. Rather, the mind plays tricks on them, pushing them down the slippery slope of questionable behavior.
  2. Integrity is doing the right thing, even when no one is watching.” –C.S. Lewis Dr.
  3. Muel Kaptein, Professor of Business Ethics and Integrity Management at the Rotterdam School of Management, has studied bad behavior for decades.

A study he recently published sheds considerable light on what motivates good people to do bad things. What follows are 13 of Dr. Kaptein’s most compelling findings into how the mind tricks good people into losing their moral compass and going astray.1.

  1. The compensation effect.
  2. The compensation effect refers to the tendency for people to assume they accumulate moral capital.
  3. We use good deeds to balance out bad deeds, or alternately, we give ourselves breaks from goodness, like a piece of chocolate after a week of salads.
  4. This makes people more inclined to do bad things under the guise of “I’m a good person” or “It’s just this one thing.” A great example of this is a study in which people were observed lying and cheating more after they made the decision to purchase products that were good for the environment.2.

The power of names. What you name something is important, as it can skew people’s sense of reality. If companies assign unethical practices simple and humorous euphemisms (like “financial engineering” for accounting fraud), employees are less likely to take their unethical behavior seriously.

Thomas Watson, the founder of IBM, was famous for saying, “Doing business is a game, the greatest game in the world if you know how to play it.” Something as simple as calling business a game can make people less likely to see that their actions have serious, real-world consequences.3. Cognitive dissonance.

Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort humans feel when they hold two contradictory opinions or their behavior is inconsistent with their beliefs. It’s one of the strongest psychological forces driving human behavior. When people who feel they are good do bad things, cognitive dissonance makes them ignore this behavior because they can’t tolerate the inconsistency between their behavior and their beliefs.

People high in suffer from less cognitive dissonance.4. Tunnel vision. There’s nothing wrong with setting goals and driving hard to achieve them. This only becomes a problem when people are possessed by a singular focus on a particular goal, to the point that they leave other important considerations such as compassion and ethics out of their thinking.5.

The Pygmalion effect. The Pygmalion effect refers to the tendency people have to act the way that other people treat them. For example, if employees are treated like they’re upright members of a team, they’re more likely to act accordingly. Alternately, if they’re treated with suspicion, they’re more likely to act in a way that justifies that perception.6.

The pressure to conform. The pressure to conform is powerful. When a group engages in unethical behavior, individuals are far more likely to participate in or condone that behavior rather than risk standing out.7. Obedience to authority. It’s quite difficult for most people to ignore the wishes of those in authority positions.

People also feel like they’re less responsible for wrongdoings if they act under the direction of someone else. Both of these reasons explain why employees are likely to act out the unethical wishes of their supervisors—and feel far less guilt than if they had decided to do it themselves.8.

Winner-take-all competition. We live in a society where there is often only one winner: one person wins the prize, one person gets the job, one person receives the credit. But does this competitive culture really produce the best outcomes? When it comes to ethical behavior, the answer is no. When there is only one winner in a given situation, people are more likely to cheat rather than face the consequences of losing.9.

Social bond theory. Employees are more likely to be loyal to their companies if they feel unique, valued, and important. The more they feel that they’re replaceable and underappreciated, the more likely they are to commit ethical violations.10. The blinding effect of power.

People in power typically see themselves as inherently different from their employees. This can lead them to set ethical boundaries for their employees that are more stringent than the ones they set for themselves. What happens next is the stuff of newspaper headlines.11. Conspicuous consumption. When companies splash money around, they contribute to unethical behavior.

Flashy displays of wealth lead to increased selfishness. Employees either aim hard for these carrots or develop jealousy of their high-rolling colleagues who achieve them. This leads to people who are more likely to put their own needs ahead of doing the right thing.12.

  1. Acceptance of small theft.
  2. One might think that taking small things from the workplace, like notebooks, pens, and computer paper, is harmless.
  3. But when small thefts are ignored by management, people become far more likely to up the ante.13.
  4. Reactance theory.
  5. People like their freedom.
  6. If they feel that the rules imposed on them are too strict or too restrictive, they often break those rules—and even go further against protocol than they otherwise would have.

Bringing It All Together Perhaps the most shocking thing about ethical violations is the simple, almost mundane conditions that contribute to them. Thankfully, a little bit of knowledge goes a long way in reducing environments that contribute to this behavior.

What are forces in psychology?

Psychological forces are a group of thoughts, emotions, and behavioral developments leading to maturity. Sociocultural forces are a group of values, ideas, and beliefs that influence maturity.

What are the 3 parts of psychology?

Perhaps Freud’s single most enduring and important idea was that the human psyche ( personality ) has more than one aspect. Freud’s personality theory (1923) saw the psyche structured into three parts (i.e., tripartite), the id, ego, and superego, all developing at different stages in our lives. These are systems, not parts of the brain, or in any way physical. What Is The Third Force In Psychology According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the id is the primitive and instinctual part of the mind that contains sexual and aggressive drives and hidden memories, the super-ego operates as a moral conscience, and the ego is the realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego. What Is The Third Force In Psychology

What are the 3 behaviors in psychology?

Abstract – The psychic sphere is to be regarded as the source of meaningful behaviour, which is carried out in the service of the cell community that makes up our body. Three fundamental types of behaviour can be distinguished: the purely practical, the theoretical-practical, and the purely theoretical.

These three types of behaviour have three different reasons: the first a determining reason, the second a motivating reason, and the third a supporting reason. The threefold nature of the reasons is related to the threefold needs of the cell community (in this context man is considered as an example of an animal).

Possible neurobiological bases of human behaviour are depicted in a schematic figure showing the relation of cerebral centres and sensorimotor functions of the human face including eye movements. The psychic centre may be located in the thalamus, the areas of the central sulcus are regarded as an objectivation zone.

What are the three 3 elements of psychology explain?

So! What Drives this “Need”? – Not only human personality but even the personalities of other living beings are driven by three primary elements of psychology i.e. “Id”, “Ego” and “Super Ego”. These three elements were defined by Sigmund Freud, the Austrian Neurologist who is also regarded as the “Father of Psychoanalysis”.

  1. Right from the time we are born (or rather even before that) the first and foremost element that has been existing is the “Id”.
  2. It is the manufacturing unit of what we call as “Desires”.
  3. Id generates the desire for satisfying the need or necessities.
  4. For example a child when hungry feels the desire to cry as a tool for grabbing attention.

In the womb this Id drives it to perform various gestures like kicking to signal the mother about it’s needs or it’s feelings. The Id is however like a child. It just creates desires towards generation of a need. As we grow up these desires are not just limited to necessities of life but gradually lead to generation of desire for seeking worldly pleasures regardless of those being of any necessity to lead the life.