Which Theorist Published Research Related To The Psychology Of Personality?

Which Theorist Published Research Related To The Psychology Of Personality
Chapter 1 Quiz Bank Psychology Flashcards Behaviorists study learned behavior. Blank is a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans. Humanism. What is Abraham Maslow best known for? Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

Who was the first African American to receive PhD in psychology in the United States? Francis Summer. Which aspect of the scientific method occurs first? Hypothesis. Which of the following exemplifies the empirical method? Dr. Sarkeesian observes and records how watching cartoons influences heart rates.

Guillermo spends some time each day applying the principles of structuralism to examine his own conscious experience as carefully as possible Introspection. Functionalist psychologists focus on the function of behavior and the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts.

Dr. Bogdarian noticed that one of her students addresses with her word mother instead of the word professor or doctor. Dr. Bogdarian applies the principles of blank and the hypothesizes the student misspeaks because he is unconsciously associating her with his mother. psychoanalytic. A series of dots arranged in the shape of a face, not a series of dots.

A psychologists studying this phenomenon is applying the principals of gestalt psychology. I provide Ralph within the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don’t like.

I am applying the principles of blank blank in an attempt to modify Ralph’s behavior. operant conditioning. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the blank blank includes food, water, and shelter. basic survival. Which of the following exemplifies the unconditional positive regard component of client-centered therapy? Abby tells her therapist that she tripped a small think that was in her way and her therapist accepts this information with no judgement.

Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. She is a bio psychologist. The cognitive revolution created an impetus for psychologists to focus their attention on better understanding the mind and mental process that underlie behavior.

Lucy wants to study changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in blank psychology. developmental. Cognitive psychology focuses on studying thoughts and their relationship to our experience and our actions. Which theorist published research related to the psychology of personality? Sigmund Freud.

In the study of personality, the blank blank model includes dimensions of conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion. five factor. Edmund wants to identify relatively consistent patterns of thought and behavior, measure these traits interact in a particular context to determine how a person will behave in any given situation.

Edmund wants to conduct research in the area if personality. Susan wants to study prejudice, attraction, ho we explain our own behavior of others, and how we resolve interpersonal conflicts. Susan should conduct research in the area of social psychology. Blank focuses on making psychology an objective science by studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance if unobservable mental process.

Behaviorism. When studying personality traits, someone who is calm, even-tempered, and secure will score low on the blank trait. agreeableness. Which of the following is an example of research someone might conduct in the area of health psychology? Whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese.

Which theorist hold the most influence in shaping how clinicians interact with people seeking psychotherapy? Carl Rogers. Which kind of psychologist would be consulted in jury selection and witness preparation? Forensic. When studying personality traits, someone who is helpful, trusting, and empathetic will score high on the blank trait.

conscientiousness. Which of the following is not involved in critical thinking? Knowing your opinion. What do structuralism, gestalt psychology, and Sigmund Freud all have in common? They were all concerned with describing and understanding the inner experience.

Which of the following is not part of feminist psychology? Favoring women over men. According to Sigmund Freud, all of the following represent ways to access the unconscious mind except through the use of reinforcement and punishment. Which of the following is a reason that gestalt psychology did not become more popular in the United States? European psychology is not as rigorous as American psychology.

Behaviorists all focus on the internal motivation for action. Which of the following exemplifies a personality trait? IDA is charming. In the study of mate preference differences between men and women that spanned 37 cultures, Buss (1989) found that men value youthful appearance more than women.

  • Why? Youthful looks provide fertility clues.
  • What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Humanism focuses on the potential of all people for evil.
  • What should be changed.
  • In the developmental psychology, there is an increasing interest in researching cognitive changes that occur later in life.

Why? Populations of developed nations are living longer. According to the bio psycho social model, what determines health? Interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors. What was the primary conclusion of Stanley Milligram’s obedience research? Average people will harm others if told to do so by an authority figure.

Who created personality psychology?

Gordon Allport was a pioneering psychologist often referred to as one of the founders of personality psychology.

Who are the major researchers of personality psychology?

The Grand Theorists of the Early-to-Mid 20th Century – When people think of personality psychologists, certain names often come to mind: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and others. These individuals were highly prominent theorists and researchers of human nature in the early-to-mid 20th century.

You might be interested:  What Is The Control Group In Psychology?

Who introduced the scientific study of personality?

Developed from Galen’s theory of the four temperaments, Kant proposed trait words to describe each temperament. Wundt later suggested the arrangement of the traits on two major axes. – Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic perspective of personality was the first comprehensive theory of personality, explaining a wide variety of both normal and abnormal behaviors.

Freud was influenced by Charles Darwin’s ideas and incorporated the notion of a sex drive into all aspects of his theory of personality. According to Freud, unconscious drives influenced by sex and aggression, and our childhood experiences, are the forces that influence our personality. Freud attracted many followers who modified his ideas to create new theories about personality.

These theorists, referred to as neo-Freudians, generally agreed with Freud that childhood experiences matter, but they reduced the emphasis on sex by adopting the notion of psychic energy and focused more on the social environment and effects of culture on personality.

Who was the first psychologist to focus on personality?

Psychoanalytical theories – Psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of personality. Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school of thought. He drew on the physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term psychodynamics,

Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy, Freud proposed psychic energy could be converted into behavior. His theory places central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological conflicts. Freud divides human personality into three significant components: the id, ego and super-ego,

The id acts according to the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification of its needs regardless of external environment; the ego then must emerge in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands of the id in accordance with the outside world, adhering to the reality principle,

  1. Finally, the superego (conscience) inculcates moral judgment and societal rules upon the ego, thus forcing the demands of the id to be met not only realistically but morally.
  2. The superego is the last function of the personality to develop, and is the embodiment of parental/social ideals established during childhood.

According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of these three components. The channeling and release of sexual (libidal) and aggressive energies, which ensues from the “Eros” (sex; instinctual self-preservation) and “Thanatos” (death; instinctual self-annihilation) drives respectively, are major components of his theory.

It is important to note that Freud’s broad understanding of sexuality included all kinds of pleasurable feelings experienced by the human body. Freud proposed five psychosexual stages of personality development. He believed adult personality is dependent upon early childhood experiences and largely determined by age five.

Fixations that develop during the infantile stage contribute to adult personality and behavior. One of Sigmund Freud’s earlier associates, Alfred Adler, agreed with Freud that early childhood experiences are important to development, and believed birth order may influence personality development.

Adler believed that the oldest child was the individual who would set high achievement goals in order to gain attention lost when the younger siblings were born. He believed the middle children were competitive and ambitious. He reasoned that this behavior was motivated by the idea of surpassing the firstborn’s achievements.

He added, however, that the middle children were often not as concerned about the glory attributed to their behavior. He also believed the youngest would be more dependent and sociable. Adler finished by surmising that an only child loves being the center of attention and matures quickly but in the end fails to become independent.

Heinz Kohut thought similarly to Freud’s idea of transference. He used narcissism as a model of how people develop their sense of self. Narcissism is the exaggerated sense of self in which one is believed to exist in order to protect one’s low self-esteem and sense of worthlessness. Kohut had a significant impact on the field by extending Freud’s theory of narcissism and introducing what he called the ‘self-object transferences’ of mirroring and idealization.

In other words, children need to idealize and emotionally “sink into” and identify with the idealized competence of admired figures such as parents or older siblings. They also need to have their self-worth mirrored by these people. Such experiences allow them to thereby learn the self-soothing and other skills that are necessary for the development of a healthy sense of self.

Another important figure in the world of personality theory is Karen Horney, She is credited with the development of “Feminist Psychology”. She disagrees with Freud on some key points, one being that women’s personalities are not just a function of “Penis Envy”, but that girl children have separate and different psychic lives unrelated to how they feel about their fathers or primary male role models.

She talks about three basic Neurotic needs “Basic Anxiety “, “Basic Hostility” and “Basic Evil”. She posits that to any anxiety an individual experiences they would have one of three approaches, moving toward people, moving away from people or moving against people.

What is the theory of personality psychology?

Trait Theory – The trait theory of personality was developed by Raymond Cattell, who argued that a person’s personality is a series of traits that are stable over time. The approach narrows down a person’s personality to five core traits: openness, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness.

Who is the father of modern personality psychology?

Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt in 1902
Born 16 August 1832 Neckarau near Mannheim, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Confederation
Died 31 August 1920 (aged 88) Großbothen, Saxony, Germany
Education University of Heidelberg ( MD, 1856)
Known for Experimental psychology Cultural psychology Structuralism Apperception
Scientific career
Fields Experimental psychology, Cultural psychology, philosophy, physiology
Institutions University of Leipzig
Thesis Untersuchungen über das Verhalten der Nerven in entzündeten und degenerierten Organen (Research of the Behaviour of Nerves in Inflamed and Degenerated Organs) (1856)
Doctoral advisor Karl Ewald Hasse
Other academic advisors Hermann von Helmholtz Johannes Peter Müller
Doctoral students James McKeen Cattell, G. Stanley Hall, Oswald Külpe, Hugo Münsterberg, Ljubomir Nedić, Walter Dill Scott, George M. Stratton, Edward B. Titchener, Lightner Witmer
Influences Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, Gustav Theodor Fechner, Johann Friedrich Herbart
Influenced James Mark Baldwin, Emil Kraepelin, Sigmund Freud, Moritz Schlick
You might be interested:  How To Open A Private Practice In Psychology?

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (; German: ; 16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the fathers of modern psychology, Wundt, who distinguished psychology as a science from philosophy and biology, was the first person ever to call himself a psychologist,

He is widely regarded as the “father of experimental psychology “. In 1879, at the University of Leipzig, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research. This marked psychology as an independent field of study. By creating this laboratory he was able to establish psychology as a separate science from other disciplines.

He also established the first academic journal for psychological research, Philosophische Studien (from 1883 to 1903) (followed by another: Psychologische Studien, from 1905 to 1917), to publish the institute’s research. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked Wundt’s reputation as first for “all-time eminence” based on ratings provided by 29 American historians of psychology.

Which theorists studied personality?

Major Theories of Personality – Personality psychology is the focus of some of the best-known psychology theories by a number of famous thinkers including Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Some of these theories attempt to tackle a specific area of personality while others attempt to explain personality much more broadly.

Who are some personality theorists?

Top 18 Personality Theorists Including Freud and More

Top Personality Theorists Theory
Sigmund Freud Psychodynamic
Carl Jung Psychodynamic
Alfred Adler Psychodynamic
Karen Horney Psychodynamic

When did personality psychology begin?

The discipline as we know it today started developing seriously in the 1930s. The first issue of Character and Personality came out in 1932 with the aim of fusing British and American knowledge of individual differences between people with German studies and people’s characters.

What are the 3 main theories of personality?

However, the three most commonly discussed in the social sciences are psychodynamic, humanistic, and behaviorist theories. Each of these theories can be used in varying contexts, depending on the nature of the problem the client has presented.

What are the 5 theories of personality?

Why are the big 5 personality traits important? – When thinking about the big 5 personality traits, hiring managers, CEOs and even the candidates are wise to think about why they are important when it comes to joining a team. Before we go into the reasons why they are important, let’s quickly remind ourselves of what they are.

The five broad personality traits described by the theory are extraversion (also often spelled extroversion), agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. The five basic personality traits is a theory coined in 1949 by D.W. Fiske (1949) and later expanded upon by other researchers including Norman (1967), Smith (1967), Goldberg (1981), and McCrae & Costa (1987).

So, why are they important when it comes to candidate selection? The big 5 personality traits help us to not only better understand how they compare to others and to put names to their characteristics, it’s also used to explore relationships between personality and many other life indicators.

Who are all the fathers of psychology?

Learning Objectives – By the end of this section, you will be able to:

Understand the importance of Wundt and James in the development of psychology Appreciate Freud’s influence on psychology Understand the basic tenets of Gestalt psychology Appreciate the important role that behaviorism played in psychology’s history Understand basic tenets of humanism Understand how the cognitive revolution shifted psychology’s focus back to the mind

Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century.

What is the origin of personality in psychology?

personality, a characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people’s relations to the environment and to the social group,

  1. The term personality has been defined in many ways, but as a psychological concept two main meanings have evolved.
  2. The first pertains to the consistent differences that exist between people: in this sense, the study of personality focuses on classifying and explaining relatively stable human psychological characteristics.

The second meaning emphasizes those qualities that make all people alike and that distinguish psychological man from other species; it directs the personality theorist to search for those regularities among all people that define the nature of man as well as the factors that influence the course of lives.

This duality may help explain the two directions that personality studies have taken: on the one hand, the study of ever more specific qualities in people, and, on the other, the search for the organized totality of psychological functions that emphasizes the interplay between organic and psychological events within people and those social and biological events that surround them.

The dual definition of personality is interwoven in most of the topics discussed below. It should be emphasized, however, that no definition of personality has found universal acceptance within the field. The study of personality can be said to have its origins in the fundamental idea that people are distinguished by their characteristic individual patterns of behaviour—the distinctive ways in which they walk, talk, furnish their living quarters, or express their urges.

Whatever the behaviour, personologists—as those who systematically study personality are called—examine how people differ in the ways they express themselves and attempt to determine the causes of these differences. Although other fields of psychology examine many of the same functions and processes, such as attention, thinking, or motivation, the personologist places emphasis on how these different processes fit together and become integrated so as to give each person a distinctive identity, or personality.

You might be interested:  Why Do I Fall In Love So Easily Psychology?

The systematic psychological study of personality has emerged from a number of different sources, including psychiatric case studies that focused on lives in distress, from philosophy, which explores the nature of man, and from physiology, anthropology, and social psychology,

The systematic study of personality as a recognizable and separate discipline within psychology may be said to have begun in the 1930s with the publication in the United States of two textbooks, Psychology of Personality (1937) by Ross Stagner and Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937) by Gordon W.

Allport, followed by Henry A. Murray’s Explorations in Personality (1938), which contained a set of experimental and clinical studies, and by Gardner Murphy’s integrative and comprehensive text, Personality: A Biosocial Approach to Origins and Structure (1947).

How did personality psychology originate?

The discipline as we know it today started developing seriously in the 1930s. The first issue of Character and Personality came out in 1932 with the aim of fusing British and American knowledge of individual differences between people with German studies and people’s characters.

Where did personality psychology originate?

Which Theorist Published Research Related To The Psychology Of Personality Section I: General Chronology and Driving Forces of Personality The history of personality psychology dates as far back as Ancient Greece. Indeed, philosophers since the 4th Century BCE have been trying to define exactly what it is that makes us us. In 370 BCE, Hippocrates proposed two pillars of temperament: hot/cold and moist/dry, resulting in four humors or combinations of these qualities.

  1. The hot and dry combination was referred to as yellow bile, cold and dry as black bile, hot and wet was blood and cold and wet was phlegm.
  2. Though much of the work that arose from this theory of the Four Humors was medicinal in nature, it was also hypothesized a patient’s personality could be influenced by humoral imbalances.

This categorical way of thinking about personality permeated ancient thinking on the matter. Plato proposed four groupings (artistic, sensible, intuitive, reasoning) and Aristotle hypothesized four factors (iconic i.e. artistic, pistic i.e. common-sense, noetic i.e.

intuition and dianoetic i.e. logic) contributed to one’s social order in society. Aristotle was also one of the first individuals to hypothesize connections between physical aspects of the body and behavior. In the mid to late 18th Century, Franz Gall, a neuroanatomist, fathered the new ‘pseudoscience’ of phrenology, a doctrine that hypothesized correlations between specific brain areas and functions.

Gall believed measurements of the skull could reveal something about individuals’ inner thoughts and emotions, an assumption that paved the way for modern neuropsychology. Gall’s work was some of the first to move away from a philosophical explanation of behavior and personality into one rooted in anatomy.

  • Physiological evidence for such a conjecture arrived in the mid 19th Century with the iconic and fascinating case of Phineas Gage.
  • Gage was a railroad construction worker from New Hampshire when, in 1848, an accident caused a tamping iron to be driven through the side of his face, behind his left eye and all the way through the top of his skull.

Miraculously, Gage recovered. Though weakened, he was able to walk and speak. However, the brain damage from the accident resulted in numerous changes in his personality. Though history has distorted the extent of these changes, it is generally agreed that Phineas Gage’s demeanor went from moral and calm to irreverent, impatient and profane.

  1. His case is one of the first to provide physical evidence that personality is linked to specific brain regions.
  2. In another conceptualization of personality, Sigmund Freud published The Ego and the Id in 1923.
  3. Freud posited that the human psyche consists of three main components: the id, the ego and the superego which control all conscious and unconscious thought and therefore behavior.

The id can be thought of as the innate drivers of behavior. It encompasses bodily needs and desires and, according to Freud, drives us to seek out these wants. In other words it is “the dark, inaccessible part of our personality contains everything that is inherited, the instincts, which originate from somatic organization.” The ego can be thought of as the bridge between the id and reality; it is what finds realistic ways to achieve what the id wants and also finds justifications and rationalizations for these desires.

Lastly, the superego is the organized component of the psyche and is often referred to as the moral check of the ego. It is responsible for conscience and for regulating the drives of the id and ego by providing a sense of right and wrong. Carl Jung, a psychiatrist and student of Freud, developed a type-based theory of personality.

In his book, Psychological Types, Jung claims individuals fall into different dichotomous personality categories – for example, introversion/extraversion. The typology theory of personality was further popularized by Katherine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers who eventually developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator,

  • Type theory remains a common conceptualization of personality to this day.
  • The trend of investigating the personality puzzle from the angle of “what are our underlying drives?” continued into the 1940s and 1950s.
  • Many are familiar with Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, but fail to recognize Maslow proposed that all of human motivation is driven by the necessity of fulfilling these needs in accordance with the principle of self-actualization, which states humans are driven to be the best they can be.

In the late 1950s, Carl Rogers built off the ideas of Maslow, arguing that yes, we all strive to achieve our greatest potential but we do so in different ways according to our personalities. This line of reasoning leads to a chicken and the egg problem: motivations to do something (like fulfill your human needs) ultimately influence behavior and thereby influence personality (as Maslow believed); but, that personality is simultaneously influencing the way you act upon motivations (as Rogers hypothesized).