Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone?

Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone

QuestionAnswer The scientific study that aims to solve practical problems is called? Applied Research The science of behavior and mental process is called? Psychology The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking memory, and language)is called? Cognitive Neuroscience The long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors called? Nature-nurture issue The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to the succeeding generations is called? Natural Selection A brance of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological theraphy is called? Psychiatry The branch of psychology that assist people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being is called? Counseling Psychology The differing complementary views, from biological, to psychological to socio-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon are referred to as? The levels of analysis An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind is called? Structuralism A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish-is called? Functionalism 1965-Professor Skinner is lecturing your introductory course. He defines psychology as the “scientific study of _.” Observable Behavior Edward Titchener used the research method known as? Introspection The leader of a self-helf group has asked you to recommend an approach to psychology that emphasizes personal growth and people’s need for love and acceptance. What branch of psychology? Humanistic Psychology The unified understanding of explanations provided by neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other psychological perspectives is most clearly provided by? Biopsychoscocial approach A focus on how much our genes and environment influence our individual differences is most relevant to the _ perspective. Behavior genetics Jim is a 43 yr old male presenting with the auditory hallucinations, ideas of reference, paranoid of thoughts of presecutions and claims of “special powers.” Jim suffers from paranoid schizophrenia. His dr. is most likely a? Psychiatrist Person believes that certain ideas and personal characterteristics are innate or inborn. Nativist – Plato believed it A person believes that knowledge comes from experience with the environment. Empiricist – Aristotle believed it The view that the mind and body are two separate entities. Dualism British Philosopher (Empiricist) believed that the mind is a blank slate before the environmental experiences write their story. John Locke Pioneer demonstrated through research that mental processes could be studied with the same scientific methods used in some other areas. Hermann Von Hemholtz The psychologist bring together the views of psychology as a science of behavior and a science of mental processes. Jean Piaget The view of psychology emphasized the study of mental processes alone. Structuralism Who introduced early school of structuralism? Edward Titchener Who wroter the early textbook of principles of Psychology? William James In its earliest days, psychology was defined as? A science of mental life Who would most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology should investigate only behaviors that can be observed”? John B. Watson Psychologist who study how brain activity is linked to memory, perception, and other thought processes are called? Cognitive neuroscientists Today, psychology is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes Which of the following exemplifies the issue of relative importance of nature and nurture on our behavior? The issue of relative influence of biology and experience on behavior. The sevententh-century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience is Descartes Psychologists who study the degree to which genes influence our personality are working from the Behavior genetices prospective Which psychological perspective emphasizes the interaction of the brain and body in behavior? Neuroscience A psychologists who explores how Asian and North American definitions of attractiveness differ is working from the _ perspective. Social-cultural A psychologists who conducts experiments solely to build psychology’s knowledge base is engage in Basic research Today, psychology is a discipline that Connects diversity of other fields. In order, the sequence of steps in the SQ3R method is Survey,Question, Read, Review, Reflect The first psychology laboratory was established by _ in the year _. Wundt; 1879 Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology is the science of mental life”? Wilheim Wundt Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of Philosophy and Biology Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are most closely associated with Humanistic Psychology In psychology, behavior is best defined as Any action can be observed and record In defining psychology, the text notes that psychology is most accurately described as a way of asking and answering questions The Greek Philosopher who believed that intelligence was inherited was Plato The biopsychological approach emphasized the importance of Different levels of analysis in exploring behavior and mental processes The way we encode, process, store and retrieve information is the primary concern of the _ perspective. Cognitive Dr. Ernst esplains behavior in terms of different situations. Dr Ernst is working from the _ perspective. Social-cultural Which perspective emphasizes the learning of observable responses? Behavioral Dr Jones research centers on the relationship between changes in our thinking over the life span and changes in moral reasoning. Dr Jones is most likely a Developmental psychologist Which subfield is directly concerned with studying human behavior in the workplace? Industrial/Organizational psychology A psychologists who studies how worker productivity might be increased by changing office layout is engaged in _ research. Applied A major principle underlying the SQ3R study method is that People learn and remember material best when they actively process it


Which approach to psychology emphasizes the study of mental processes?

The Cognitive Perspective – Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. “Cognition” refers to thinking and memory processes, and “cognitive development” refers to long-term changes in these processes.

  1. It accepts the use of the scientific method and generally rejects introspection as a valid method of investigation, unlike phenomenological methods such as Freudian psychoanalysis.
  2. It explicitly acknowledges the existence of internal mental states (such as belief, desire, and motivation), unlike behaviorist psychology.

Cognitive theory contends that solutions to problems take the form of algorithms, heuristics, or insights. Major areas of research in cognitive psychology include perception, memory, categorization, knowledge representation, numerical cognition, language, and thinking.

Which psychological perspective emphasizes the study of mental processes such as memory learning problem-solving and thinking?

Key Takeaways –

  • Humanistic psychology emerged as the “third force” in psychology after psychodynamic and behaviourist psychologies.
  • The key principles of humanistic psychology include human capacity for self-actualization, self-direction, and choice.
  • Carl Rogers identified five principles of a fully functioning person as open, present, trusting, creative, and fulfilled.
  • Humanistic psychology relies on subjective factors and utilizes qualitative methods of study.
  • Abraham Maslow introduced a hierarchy of human needs including physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
  • With the advance of humanistic psychology, human motivation theory shifted from a purely external or extrinsic focus to the acknowledgment of an intrinsic focus.
  • Positive psychology recommends focusing on people’s strengths and virtues as a point of departure rather than analyzing the underlying psychopathology.
  • Flow is a state of optimal performance that can be entered when a person is wholeheartedly performing a task or activity for intrinsic purposes.
  • Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as attention, memory, perception, language use, problem solving, creativity, and thinking.
  • The main premise of evolutionary psychology is that while today the human mind is shaped by the modern social world, it is adapted to the natural environment in which it evolved.

Which perspective in psychology largely avoided the study of mental processes?

Learning Objectives – By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Understand the importance of Wundt and James in the development of psychology
  • Appreciate Freud’s influence on psychology
  • Understand the basic tenets of Gestalt psychology
  • Appreciate the important role that behaviorism played in psychology’s history
  • Understand basic tenets of humanism
  • Understand how the cognitive revolution shifted psychology’s focus back to the mind

Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century.

  1. Two men, working in the 19th century, are generally credited as being the founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline that was distinct from philosophy.
  2. Their names were Wilhelm Wundt and William James.
  3. This section will provide an overview of the shifts in paradigms that have influenced psychology from Wundt and James through today.

Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) was a German scientist who was the first person to be referred to as a psychologist. His famous book entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology was published in 1873. Wundt viewed psychology as a scientific study of conscious experience, and he believed that the goal of psychology was to identify components of consciousness and how those components combined to result in our conscious experience.

Wundt used introspection (he called it “internal perception”), a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed. Wundt’s version of introspection used only very specific experimental conditions in which an external stimulus was designed to produce a scientifically observable (repeatable) experience of the mind (Danziger, 1980).

The first stringent requirement was the use of “trained” or practiced observers, who could immediately observe and report a reaction. The second requirement was the use of repeatable stimuli that always produced the same experience in the subject and allowed the subject to expect and thus be fully attentive to the inner reaction.

  • These experimental requirements were put in place to eliminate “interpretation” in the reporting of internal experiences and to counter the argument that there is no way to know that an individual is observing their mind or consciousness accurately, since it cannot be seen by any other person.
  • This attempt to understand the structure or characteristics of the mind was known as structuralism,

Wundt established his psychology laboratory at the University at Leipzig in 1879 ( ). In this laboratory, Wundt and his students conducted experiments on, for example, reaction times. A subject, sometimes in a room isolated from the scientist, would receive a stimulus such as a light, image, or sound.

The subject’s reaction to the stimulus would be to push a button, and an apparatus would record the time to reaction. Wundt could measure reaction time to one-thousandth of a second (Nicolas & Ferrand, 1999). (a) Wilhelm Wundt is credited as one of the founders of psychology. He created the first laboratory for psychological research.

(b) This photo shows him seated and surrounded by fellow researchers and equipment in his laboratory in Germany. Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone However, despite his efforts to train individuals in the process of introspection, this process remained highly subjective, and there was very little agreement between individuals. As a result, structuralism fell out of favor with the passing of Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener, in 1927 (Gordon, 1995).

  • William James (1842–1910) was the first American psychologist who espoused a different perspective on how psychology should operate ( ).
  • James was introduced to Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and accepted it as an explanation of an organism’s characteristics.
  • Ey to that theory is the idea that natural selection leads to organisms that are adapted to their environment, including their behavior.

Adaptation means that a trait of an organism has a function for the survival and reproduction of the individual, because it has been naturally selected. As James saw it, psychology’s purpose was to study the function of behavior in the world, and as such, his perspective was known as functionalism,

Functionalism focused on how mental activities helped an organism fit into its environment. Functionalism has a second, more subtle meaning in that functionalists were more interested in the operation of the whole mind rather than of its individual parts, which were the focus of structuralism. Like Wundt, James believed that introspection could serve as one means by which someone might study mental activities, but James also relied on more objective measures, including the use of various recording devices, and examinations of concrete products of mental activities and of anatomy and physiology (Gordon, 1995).

William James, shown here in a self-portrait, was the first American psychologist. Perhaps one of the most influential and well-known figures in psychology’s history was Sigmund Freud ( ). Freud (1856–1939) was an Austrian neurologist who was fascinated by patients suffering from “hysteria” and neurosis. Hysteria was an ancient diagnosis for disorders, primarily of women with a wide variety of symptoms, including physical symptoms and emotional disturbances, none of which had an apparent physical cause.

Freud theorized that many of his patients’ problems arose from the unconscious mind. In Freud’s view, the unconscious mind was a repository of feelings and urges of which we have no awareness. Gaining access to the unconscious, then, was crucial to the successful resolution of the patient’s problems. According to Freud, the unconscious mind could be accessed through dream analysis, by examinations of the first words that came to people’s minds, and through seemingly innocent slips of the tongue.

Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious, as well as early childhood experiences, and this particular perspective dominated clinical psychology for several decades (Thorne & Henley, 2005). (a) Sigmund Freud was a highly influential figure in the history of psychology. Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone Freud’s ideas were influential, and you will learn more about them when you study lifespan development, personality, and therapy. For instance, many therapists believe strongly in the unconscious and the impact of early childhood experiences on the rest of a person’s life.

The method of psychoanalysis, which involves the patient talking about their experiences and selves, while not invented by Freud, was certainly popularized by him and is still used today. Many of Freud’s other ideas, however, are controversial. Drew Westen (1998) argues that many of the criticisms of Freud’s ideas are misplaced, in that they attack his older ideas without taking into account later writings.

Westen also argues that critics fail to consider the success of the broad ideas that Freud introduced or developed, such as the importance of childhood experiences in adult motivations, the role of unconscious versus conscious motivations in driving our behavior, the fact that motivations can cause conflicts that affect behavior, the effects of mental representations of ourselves and others in guiding our interactions, and the development of personality over time.

Westen identifies subsequent research support for all of these ideas. More modern iterations of Freud’s clinical approach have been empirically demonstrated to be effective (Knekt et al., 2008; Shedler, 2010). Some current practices in psychotherapy involve examining unconscious aspects of the self and relationships, often through the relationship between the therapist and the client.

Freud’s historical significance and contributions to clinical practice merit his inclusion in a discussion of the historical movements within psychology. Max Wertheimer (1880–1943), Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), and Wolfgang Köhler (1887–1967) were three German psychologists who immigrated to the United States in the early 20th century to escape Nazi Germany.

These men are credited with introducing psychologists in the United States to various Gestalt principles. The word Gestalt roughly translates to “whole;” a major emphasis of Gestalt psychology deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception.

For example, a song may be made up of individual notes played by different instruments, but the real nature of the song is perceived in the combinations of these notes as they form the melody, rhythm, and harmony. In many ways, this particular perspective would have directly contradicted Wundt’s ideas of structuralism (Thorne & Henley, 2005).

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Unfortunately, in moving to the United States, these men were forced to abandon much of their work and were unable to continue to conduct research on a large scale. These factors along with the rise of behaviorism (described next) in the United States prevented principles of Gestalt psychology from being as influential in the United States as they had been in their native Germany (Thorne & Henley, 2005).

Despite these issues, several Gestalt principles are still very influential today. Considering the human individual as a whole rather than as a sum of individually measured parts became an important foundation in humanistic theory late in the century.

  • The ideas of Gestalt have continued to influence research on sensation and perception.
  • Structuralism, Freud, and the Gestalt psychologists were all concerned in one way or another with describing and understanding inner experience.
  • But other researchers had concerns that inner experience could be a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and chose instead to exclusively study behavior, the objectively observable outcome of mental processes.

Early work in the field of behavior was conducted by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936). Pavlov studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex, in which an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus and, over time, was conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with the original stimulus.

The reflex Pavlov worked with was salivation in response to the presence of food. The salivation reflex could be elicited using a second stimulus, such as a specific sound, that was presented in association with the initial food stimulus several times. Once the response to the second stimulus was “learned,” the food stimulus could be omitted.

Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” is only one form of learning behavior studied by behaviorists. John B. Watson (1878–1958) was an influential American psychologist whose most famous work occurred during the early 20th century at Johns Hopkins University ( ).

  1. While Wundt and James were concerned with understanding conscious experience, Watson thought that the study of consciousness was flawed.
  2. Because he believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible, Watson preferred to focus directly on observable behavior and try to bring that behavior under control.

Watson was a major proponent of shifting the focus of psychology from the mind to behavior, and this approach of observing and controlling behavior came to be known as behaviorism, A major object of study by behaviorists was learned behavior and its interaction with inborn qualities of the organism.

  1. Behaviorism commonly used animals in experiments under the assumption that what was learned using animal models could, to some degree, be applied to human behavior.
  2. Indeed, Tolman (1938) stated, “I believe that everything important in psychology (except such matters as involve society and words) can be investigated in essence through the continued experimental and theoretical analysis of the determiners of rat behavior at a choice-point in a maze.” John B.

Watson is known as the father of behaviorism within psychology. Behaviorism dominated experimental psychology for several decades, and its influence can still be felt today (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Behaviorism is largely responsible for establishing psychology as a scientific discipline through its objective methods and especially experimentation.

In addition, it is used in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavior modification is commonly used in classroom settings. Behaviorism has also led to research on environmental influences on human behavior.B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) was an American psychologist ( ). Like Watson, Skinner was a behaviorist, and he concentrated on how behavior was affected by its consequences.

Therefore, Skinner spoke of reinforcement and punishment as major factors in driving behavior. As a part of his research, Skinner developed a chamber that allowed the careful study of the principles of modifying behavior through reinforcement and punishment.

This device, known as an operant conditioning chamber (or more familiarly, a Skinner box), has remained a crucial resource for researchers studying behavior (Thorne & Henley, 2005). (a) B.F. Skinner is famous for his research on operant conditioning. (b) Modified versions of the operant conditioning chamber, or Skinner box, are still widely used in research settings today.

(credit a: modification of work by “Silly rabbit”/Wikimedia Commons) Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone The Skinner box is a chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment and has a behavior indicator such as a lever or a button. When the animal pushes the button or lever, the box is able to deliver a positive reinforcement of the behavior (such as food) or a punishment (such as a noise) or a token conditioner (such as a light) that is correlated with either the positive reinforcement or punishment.

Skinner’s focus on positive and negative reinforcement of learned behaviors had a lasting influence in psychology that has waned somewhat since the growth of research in cognitive psychology. Despite this, conditioned learning is still used in human behavioral modification. Skinner’s two widely read and controversial popular science books about the value of operant conditioning for creating happier lives remain as thought-provoking arguments for his approach (Greengrass, 2004).

During the early 20th century, American psychology was dominated by behaviorism and psychoanalysis. However, some psychologists were uncomfortable with what they viewed as limited perspectives being so influential to the field. They objected to the pessimism and determinism (all actions driven by the unconscious) of Freud.

They also disliked the reductionism, or simplifying nature, of behaviorism. Behaviorism is also deterministic at its core, because it sees human behavior as entirely determined by a combination of genetics and environment. Some psychologists began to form their own ideas that emphasized personal control, intentionality, and a true predisposition for “good” as important for our self-concept and our behavior.

Thus, humanism emerged. Humanism is a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans. Two of the most well-known proponents of humanistic psychology are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers (O’Hara, n.d.). Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) was an American psychologist who is best known for proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior ( ).

  1. Although this concept will be discussed in more detail in a later chapter, a brief overview will be provided here.
  2. Maslow asserted that so long as basic needs necessary for survival were met (e.g., food, water, shelter), higher-level needs (e.g., social needs) would begin to motivate behavior.
  3. According to Maslow, the highest-level needs relate to self-actualization, a process by which we achieve our full potential.

Obviously, the focus on the positive aspects of human nature that are characteristic of the humanistic perspective is evident (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Humanistic psychologists rejected, on principle, the research approach based on reductionist experimentation in the tradition of the physical and biological sciences, because it missed the “whole” human being.

Beginning with Maslow and Rogers, there was an insistence on a humanistic research program. This program has been largely qualitative (not measurement-based), but there exist a number of quantitative research strains within humanistic psychology, including research on happiness, self-concept, meditation, and the outcomes of humanistic psychotherapy (Friedman, 2008).

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is shown. Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone Carl Rogers (1902–1987) was also an American psychologist who, like Maslow, emphasized the potential for good that exists within all people ( ). Rogers used a therapeutic technique known as client-centered therapy in helping his clients deal with problematic issues that resulted in their seeking psychotherapy.

Unlike a psychoanalytic approach in which the therapist plays an important role in interpreting what conscious behavior reveals about the unconscious mind, client-centered therapy involves the patient taking a lead role in the therapy session. Rogers believed that a therapist needed to display three features to maximize the effectiveness of this particular approach: unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy.

Unconditional positive regard refers to the fact that the therapist accepts their client for who they are, no matter what he or she might say. Provided these factors, Rogers believed that people were more than capable of dealing with and working through their own issues (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Humanism has been influential to psychology as a whole. Both Maslow and Rogers are well-known names among students of psychology (you will read more about both men later in this text), and their ideas have influenced many scholars. Furthermore, Rogers’ client-centered approach to therapy is still commonly used in psychotherapeutic settings today (O’hara, n.d.) View a brief video of Carl Rogers describing his therapeutic approach. Behaviorism’s emphasis on objectivity and focus on external behavior had pulled psychologists’ attention away from the mind for a prolonged period of time. The early work of the humanistic psychologists redirected attention to the individual human as a whole, and as a conscious and self-aware being.

By the 1950s, new disciplinary perspectives in linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science were emerging, and these areas revived interest in the mind as a focus of scientific inquiry. This particular perspective has come to be known as the cognitive revolution (Miller, 2003). By 1967, Ulric Neisser published the first textbook entitled Cognitive Psychology, which served as a core text in cognitive psychology courses around the country (Thorne & Henley, 2005).

Although no one person is entirely responsible for starting the cognitive revolution, Noam Chomsky was very influential in the early days of this movement ( ). Chomsky (1928–), an American linguist, was dissatisfied with the influence that behaviorism had had on psychology.

He believed that psychology’s focus on behavior was short-sighted and that the field had to re-incorporate mental functioning into its purview if it were to offer any meaningful contributions to understanding behavior (Miller, 2003). Noam Chomsky was very influential in beginning the cognitive revolution.

In 2010, this mural honoring him was put up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (credit: Robert Moran) Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone European psychology had never really been as influenced by behaviorism as had American psychology; and thus, the cognitive revolution helped reestablish lines of communication between European psychologists and their American counterparts. Furthermore, psychologists began to cooperate with scientists in other fields, like anthropology, linguistics, computer science, and neuroscience, among others.

This interdisciplinary approach often was referred to as the cognitive sciences, and the influence and prominence of this particular perspective resonates in modern-day psychology (Miller, 2003). Feminist Psychology The science of psychology has had an impact on human wellbeing, both positive and negative.

The dominant influence of Western, white, and male academics in the early history of psychology meant that psychology developed with the biases inherent in those individuals, which often had negative consequences for members of society that were not white or male.

Women, members of ethnic minorities in both the United States and other countries, and individuals with sexual orientations other than heterosexual had difficulties entering the field of psychology and therefore influencing its development. They also suffered from the attitudes of white, male psychologists, who were not immune to the nonscientific attitudes prevalent in the society in which they developed and worked.

Until the 1960s, the science of psychology was largely a “womanless” psychology (Crawford & Marecek, 1989), meaning that few women were able to practice psychology, so they had little influence on what was studied. In addition, the experimental subjects of psychology were mostly men, which resulted from underlying assumptions that gender had no influence on psychology and that women were not of sufficient interest to study.

  • An article by Naomi Weisstein, first published in 1968 (Weisstein, 1993), stimulated a feminist revolution in psychology by presenting a critique of psychology as a science.
  • She also specifically criticized male psychologists for constructing the psychology of women entirely out of their own cultural biases and without careful experimental tests to verify any of their characterizations of women.

Weisstein used, as examples, statements by prominent psychologists in the 1960s, such as this quote by Bruno Bettleheim: “. we must start with the realization that, as much as women want to be good scientists or engineers, they want first and foremost to be womanly companions of men and to be mothers.” Weisstein’s critique formed the foundation for the subsequent development of a feminist psychology that attempted to be free of the influence of male cultural biases on our knowledge of the psychology of women and, indeed, of both genders.

  • Crawford & Marecek (1989) identify several feminist approaches to psychology that can be described as feminist psychology.
  • These include re-evaluating and discovering the contributions of women to the history of psychology, studying psychological gender differences, and questioning the male bias present across the practice of the scientific approach to knowledge.

Culture has important impacts on individuals and social psychology, yet the effects of culture on psychology are under-studied. There is a risk that psychological theories and data derived from white, American settings could be assumed to apply to individuals and social groups from other cultures and this is unlikely to be true (Betancourt & López, 1993).

  1. One weakness in the field of cross-cultural psychology is that in looking for differences in psychological attributes across cultures, there remains a need to go beyond simple descriptive statistics (Betancourt & López, 1993).
  2. In this sense, it has remained a descriptive science, rather than one seeking to determine cause and effect.

For example, a study of characteristics of individuals seeking treatment for a binge eating disorder in Hispanic American, African American, and Caucasian American individuals found significant differences between groups (Franko et al., 2012). The study concluded that results from studying any one of the groups could not be extended to the other groups, and yet potential causes of the differences were not measured.

  1. This history of multicultural psychology in the United States is a long one.
  2. The role of African American psychologists in researching the cultural differences between African American individual and social psychology is but one example.
  3. In 1920, Cecil Sumner was the first African American to receive a PhD in psychology in the United States.

Sumner established a psychology degree program at Howard University, leading to the education of a new generation of African American psychologists (Black, Spence, and Omari, 2004). Much of the work of early African American psychologists (and a general focus of much work in first half of the 20th century in psychology in the United States) was dedicated to testing and intelligence testing in particular (Black et al., 2004).

That emphasis has continued, particularly because of the importance of testing in determining opportunities for children, but other areas of exploration in African-American psychology research include learning style, sense of community and belonging, and spiritualism (Black et al., 2004). The American Psychological Association has several ethnically based organizations for professional psychologists that facilitate interactions among members.

Since psychologists belonging to specific ethnic groups or cultures have the most interest in studying the psychology of their communities, these organizations provide an opportunity for the growth of research on the impact of culture on individual and social psychology. Read a news story about the influence of an African American’s psychology research on the historic Brown v. Board of Education civil rights case. Before the time of Wundt and James, questions about the mind were considered by philosophers. However, both Wundt and James helped create psychology as a distinct scientific discipline.

  • Wundt was a structuralist, which meant he believed that our cognitive experience was best understood by breaking that experience into its component parts.
  • He thought this was best accomplished by introspection.
  • William James was the first American psychologist, and he was a proponent of functionalism.

This particular perspective focused on how mental activities served as adaptive responses to an organism’s environment. Like Wundt, James also relied on introspection; however, his research approach also incorporated more objective measures as well. Sigmund Freud believed that understanding the unconscious mind was absolutely critical to understand conscious behavior.

This was especially true for individuals that he saw who suffered from various hysterias and neuroses. Freud relied on dream analysis, slips of the tongue, and free association as means to access the unconscious. Psychoanalytic theory remained a dominant force in clinical psychology for several decades.

Gestalt psychology was very influential in Europe. Gestalt psychology takes a holistic view of an individual and his experiences. As the Nazis came to power in Germany, Wertheimer, Koffka, and Köhler immigrated to the United States. Although they left their laboratories and their research behind, they did introduce America to Gestalt ideas.

Some of the principles of Gestalt psychology are still very influential in the study of sensation and perception. One of the most influential schools of thought within psychology’s history was behaviorism. Behaviorism focused on making psychology an objective science by studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes.

John Watson is often considered the father of behaviorism, and B.F. Skinner’s contributions to our understanding of principles of operant conditioning cannot be underestimated. As behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory took hold of so many aspects of psychology, some began to become dissatisfied with psychology’s picture of human nature.

Thus, a humanistic movement within psychology began to take hold. Humanism focuses on the potential of all people for good. Both Maslow and Rogers were influential in shaping humanistic psychology. During the 1950s, the landscape of psychology began to change. A science of behavior began to shift back to its roots of focus on mental processes.

The emergence of neuroscience and computer science aided this transition. Ultimately, the cognitive revolution took hold, and people came to realize that cognition was crucial to a true appreciation and understanding of behavior. Based on your reading, which theorist would have been most likely to agree with this statement: Perceptual phenomena are best understood as a combination of their components.

  1. William James
  2. Max Wertheimer
  3. Carl Rogers
  4. Noam Chomsky
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B _ is most well-known for proposing his hierarchy of needs.

  1. Noam Chomsky
  2. Carl Rogers
  3. Abraham Maslow
  4. Sigmund Freud

C Rogers believed that providing genuineness, empathy, and _ in the therapeutic environment for his clients was critical to their being able to deal with their problems.

  1. structuralism
  2. functionalism
  3. Gestalt
  4. unconditional positive regard

D The operant conditioning chamber (aka _ box) is a device used to study the principles of operant conditioning.

  1. Skinner
  2. Watson
  3. James
  4. Koffka

A How did the object of study in psychology change over the history of the field since the 19th century? In its early days, psychology could be defined as the scientific study of mind or mental processes. Over time, psychology began to shift more towards the scientific study of behavior.

However, as the cognitive revolution took hold, psychology once again began to focus on mental processes as necessary to the understanding of behavior. In part, what aspect of psychology was the behaviorist approach to psychology a reaction to? Behaviorists studied objectively observable behavior partly in reaction to the psychologists of the mind who were studying things that were not directly observable.

Freud is probably one of the most well-known historical figures in psychology. Where have you encountered references to Freud or his ideas about the role that the unconscious mind plays in determining conscious behavior?

Which psychological perspective focuses on the mental?

The Cognitive Perspective – Cognitive psychology stands in stark contrast to behavioral psychology. This approach focuses on how internal thoughts and feelings influence one’s behavior. The cognitive approach emphasizes the importance of memory, perception and attention, language, decision-making and problem-solving.

Encoding: Information is received. Storage: Information is retained. Retrieval: Information is recalled.

Cognitive psychology seeks to understand why people learn and process information the way they do. Cognitive psychologists might help patients cope with memory disorders, or they might consult on ways to improve educational environments and curriculum.

Which theory is based on mental processes?

Cognitive theory attempts to explain human behavior by studying the mental processes involved when trying learn and understand.

What is the behaviorist perspective?

Theory, meet practice – TDL is an applied research consultancy. In our work, we leverage the insights of diverse fields—from psychology and economics to machine learning and behavioral data science—to sculpt targeted solutions to nuanced problems. Our consulting services Many philosophers, scientists and biologists have long sought to answer a simple question: What motivates human beings? What can explain our decisions, actions and behavior? According to the behavioral perspective, the way we behave and learn can be explained through our interactions with the environment.

Our actions are always responses to stimuli, which either occur naturally or because of a learned response.1 The behavioral perspective belongs to a school of thought known as behaviorism or behavioral theory. Behavioral theory is the overarching analysis of human behavior focused on examining a person’s environment and learned associations.

Behaviorism suggests that all behavior is acquired through conditioning and can therefore be observed without consideration of thoughts or feelings. Since all behavior is but a response, behaviorism also suggests that anyone can learn to perform any action with the right conditioning.

Instead of attributing talents, skills, or behaviors to genetics, personality, or cognition, behaviorists believe them to be simply a product of conditioning.2 ” Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar man and thief – regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.

– John B. Watson in his paper “Psychologists as the Behaviorists View It” 2

What is the humanistic perspective of psychology?

Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasizes looking at the whole individual and stresses concepts such as free will, self-efficacy, and self-actualization. Rather than concentrating on dysfunction, humanistic psychology strives to help people fulfill their potential and maximize their well-being.

  • This area of psychology emerged during the 1950s as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, which had dominated psychology during the first half of the century.
  • Psychoanalysis was focused on understanding the unconscious motivations that drive behavior while behaviorism studied the conditioning processes that produce behavior.

Humanist thinkers felt that both psychoanalysis and behaviorism were too pessimistic, either focusing on the most tragic of emotions or failing to take into account the role of personal choice. However, it is not necessary to think of these three schools of thought as competing elements.

What is the approach to psychology emphasized the study of mental processes and focused on inner sensations feelings and thoughts?

Psychodynamic Psychology – Perhaps the school of psychology that is most familiar to the general public is the psychodynamic approach to understanding behaviour, which was championed by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and his followers. Psychodynamic psychology is an approach to understanding human behaviour that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories, Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone Figure 1.6 Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud and the other psychodynamic psychologists believed that many of our thoughts and emotions are unconscious. Psychotherapy was designed to help patients recover and confront their “lost” memories. Freud’s ideas were extended by other psychologists whom he influenced, including Carl Jung (1875-1961), Alfred Adler (1870-1937), Karen Horney (1855-1952), and Erik Erikson (1902-1994).

These and others who follow the psychodynamic approach believe that it is possible to help the patient if the unconscious drives can be remembered, particularly through a deep and thorough exploration of the person’s early sexual experiences and current sexual desires. These explorations are revealed through talk therapy and dream analysis in a process called psychoanalysis,

The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily practitioners who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms. Although they did not conduct much research on their ideas, and although later, more sophisticated tests of their theories have not always supported their proposals, psychodynamics has nevertheless had substantial impact on the field of psychology, and indeed on thinking about human behaviour more generally (Moore & Fine, 1995).

What is the humanistic theory of psychology?

What Is the Humanistic Psychology Approach? – Humanistic psychology is a holistic approach in psychology that focuses on the whole person. Humanists believe that a person is “in the process of becoming,” which places the conscious human experience as the nucleus of psychological establishment.

Which perspective best explains mental processes?

When it comes to the application of psychology in a therapeutic setting, there are more schools of thought than you might first assume. Beyond the stock references of Freud and Jung, which most people aware of, there are actually seven psychological perspectives (in modern psychology), each with their own benefits and uses as it relates to therapy.

No one of these is necessarily better than another. Each might be more suited in other situations more so than others. These perspectives represent the current spectrum of psychology, but will surely be revised and added to in the coming decades as we make changes to the way we live our lives.1. Psychodynamic Perspective The psychodynamic perspective is rooted in the work of Sigmund Freud.

This particular view of psychology is that the unconscious mind is responsible for much of our behavioural in the present. This, it is posited has its roots in our development in early childhood and any traumas which we may or may not experience due to the dysfunctional nature of our upbringing.

  1. From this, came the earliest forms of talk therapy, which is known as psychodynamic therapy,
  2. This explores the id, ego, and superego.
  3. It essentially involves making the connection between your unconscious mind and your actions, which extends to your emotion, relationships, and thought patterns.
  4. It’s very much a long-term approach to therapy and although it not as prevalent today, it can still be a useful therapeutic approach that can aid in treating, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse and a variety of other conditions.2.

Behavioural Perspective As the name suggests, behavioural psychology focuses on the learned behaviours that we acquire whether through our environment, peer group or any other external stimuli. This approach was founded on the work by Edward Thorndike, and John B.

Watson. Behaviourism differs from most other perspectives on this list as it focuses on observable behaviours rather than our emotional landscape. As such, behavioural therapy is very much an action-oriented approach to mental health. It is more proactive and practical compared with other therapeutic models.

In a behavioural setting, you’ll dispense with talking about your emotions or digging into your psyche and instead focus on ways in which you can change your reactions to certain situations and patterns in your life that are causing your stress. Behavioural therapy is most effective for treating phobias, substance abuse disorders, ADHD, OCD and more.3.

Cognitive Perspective The cognitive perspective is one that is perhaps most prevalent today out of all those listed here. It emerged during the 1960s and focuses on mental processes, such as memory, thinking, problem-solving, language, and decision-making. All of this informs the model that has become cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), today.

In some ways, CBT is a hybrid of behavioural therapy in that it encourages you to find practical, skills-based solutions to your current challenges. With the guidance of your therapist, you’ll identify negative patterns and learn how they’re adversely affecting you.

  • From there, you’ll explore ways in which you replace those old self-limiting beliefs and ways of doing things with behaviours that are more helpful and beneficial to your overall growth.
  • CBT has been shown to be effective in treating conditions such as depression, bipolar, anxiety, phobias, eating disorders and insomnia,4.

Biological Perspective The biological perspective is less of a direct therapeutic approach and relates more to the study of how our genes may affect our behaviour. Such variables that may influence the way we interact with the world are chromosomes, hormones and the brain.

  1. This approach focuses on more of the collective behaviours that we exhibit and why certain conditions may develop in the macro-scale rather than in a client-to-therapist setting.
  2. For example, one study has explored the implications of testosterone dropping the fathers of newborns immediately after their birth.

This is two-fold and causes men to both seek new partners (infidelity) and also become less aggressive, which is useful when fathering a newborn baby.5. Cross-Cultural Perspective The cross-cultural area of psychology is a new branch, which has gained traction over the past twenty years.

  1. The name is quite literal in that it explores how different cultures may impact the way people think, act and feel.
  2. Again, as with the biological perspective, it’s not directly related to any therapeutic approach, but is instead a set of guiding principles, which can be used as a supplementary overlay to help inform the direction of a session where needed – or help add some context.

This is useful for example, is say, you’re coming to therapy and belong to a culture that is collectivist in nature, and perhaps runs on a strict patriarchal hierarchy. This can often be a problem for people who live in western countries and who are the offspring of 1st generation immigrants who still hold onto the ways of their original homeland.

This result in a clash of cultures in the sense of the individualistic – Western – approach meeting the more conservative collectivist ideals.6. Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary psychology is another branch that comes from a research-based mandate. It focuses on how the theory of evolution accounts for our psychological processes.

And so this perspective suggests that certain behavioural reactions exist as hangovers that were once necessary in the recent past, which we may now have outgrown. The core tenets of this branch of thinking state that: your brain is the means by which you’re instructed to behave based on your environment.

The neural circuitry in your brain helps you solve problems, and the way that circuitry was constructed was by natural selection over many generations. Most of your psychological behaviours are determined by your subconscious and your mind is based on adaptive changes that first occurred during the Pleistocene era.7.

Humanistic Perspective The humanist approach was greatly influenced by the work of Abraham Maslow and his hierarchy of needs. This model emphasises the role of motivation in your thought process. As such, psychologists that work within this branch are primarily concerned with what causes people grow, change and realise their own unique potential.

And so humanistic therapy is focused on understanding your worldview as it relates to your value system. But by extension, this approach also focuses on how you can develop self-acceptance so you may overcome direct or indirect criticism from others. In a way, it’s about building self-esteem and becoming more of yourself.

Some such therapies which incorporate a humanistic approach include gestalt therapy, which has an emphasis on role-playing and client-centred therapy also known as person-centred therapy. Conditions that may benefit from a humanistic approach include: trauma, relationship difficulties, psychosis, and depression.

Which one of the following psychology approaches is concerned with the study of mental processes like perception thinking memory and decision-making?

Cognitive psychology concepts for understanding corrupt behaviour By Siri Neset (We developed this background information to accompany U4 Issue The cognitive psychology of corruption ) Cognitive psychology is defined as the study of individual-level mental processes such as information processing, attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, decision-making, and thinking (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2002).

A core assumption of analysing corrupt behaviour through a cognitive psychology lens is that individuals make conscious decisions to engage in corrupt behaviour. These decisions most likely involve several parallel psychological processes. Improved understanding about how these processes are involved in decision-making on corruption could improve the design of anti-corruption programs directed towards societies where corruption is the norm or towards individual power-holders.

Below, we review concepts related to decision-making within the field of cognitive psychology that are most relevant for explaining corrupt behaviour and that appear in our literature review. Information processing A decision involves a choice between two or more alternatives that involve choices about questions like whether, whom, when, and which,

Each alternative is associated with a set of beliefs about the outcome associated with each alternative. Every outcome is associated with a value or preference, although these beliefs and values may well be idiosyncratic to every decision-maker. Making a choice implies commitment to the chosen alternative and can involve searching for reasons or rationalisations to justify the choice.

A basic model of decision-making consists of three steps:

Input in the form of visual or auditory informationStoring and coding of that information in the brain, with this stored information used by the parts of the brain responsible for mental activities such as memory, perception and attentionOutput in the form of behaviour based on information processing (McLeod 2008).

The task of choosing between alternatives and behaving in a particular way involves various degrees of information processing. This in turn entails different forms of data-driven and concept (or hypothesis) driven knowledge acquisition activities that range along the continuum from direct knowledge (perception based) to indirect knowing (cognition based) that involves more complex inference tasks (Baron and Harvey 1980; Harris 1981; Lindsay and Norman 1977; Taylor and Crocker 1981).

Three factors influence the correct processing of information. One, time: stress and high levels of information that need processing weaken attention and accuracy (Hastie, 1981). Two, capacity: individuals require the mental capacity to process incongruent information (Fiske, Kinder and Larter 1983). Three, motivation: individual preferences for accuracy over maintaining the status quo will result in different behavioural outcomes (Crocker et al.1984).

Schemata The idea of “schemata” is a well-known concept within cognitive psychology, and can help us to understand the internal mental processes (i.e. coding and information storage) that lie between the stimuli (input) and the response individuals make in face of any given situation.

  1. A schema is defined as “a cognitive structure of organised prior knowledge, abstracted from experience with specific instances that guide the processing of new information and the retrieval of stored information” (Fiske and Linville 1980, 543).
  2. Schemata include script, examples, and analogies.
  3. They are a structured framework that helps people to store, simplify, and relate information, and they differ according to level of expertise and involvement.
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Furthermore, they are connected to complex cognitive processes such as memory, and are at the heart of both data-and theory-driven information processing. In terms of decision-making processes, cognitive psychology research on schemata can tell us much about how established knowledge influences the way in which new knowledge is understood, categorised, selected, coded, inferred, stored and retrieved (Larson 1994).

How schemata function can be described in five points. First, schemata organise experiences. Secondly, they influence how long-term memory stores, and retrieves, information (Taylor and Crocker 1981). Third, the structure of the schemata can act as a basis for filling out missing information (Minsky 1975) and as such provide information that is perceivable in the given situation (Taylor and Crocker, 1981).

Fourth, schemata contribute to simplify problem solving through shortcuts and heuristics (Tversky and Kahneman 1973). Finally, schemata are instrumental in self-evaluation by providing a basis from prior experiences. Emotions and motivations Emotions and motivations have traditionally been omitted from traditional cognitive research (Smith and Semin, 2004).

However, within a situated cognition perspective, motivational constructs are useful for understanding the initiation and determination of information processing. Emotions are seen as a vital ingredient in functional cognition. Studies demonstrate that brain damage affecting the emotional systems (where verbal abilities and “intelligence” are intact) severely affected patients’ rational decision-making ability (Damasio 1994).

Cognition and behaviour The study of cognition is inseparably tied to observations of behaviour or actions taken by the individual. The mind is viewed as composed of inner structures that organise information from the environment, connect this information with prior stored knowledge, and process information and knowledge to form a decision upon which to act (Clark 1997, 47).

  1. The cognition/behaviour link is, however, not a clean-cut relationship wherein cognition shapes behaviour.
  2. A substantial body of work on some of the basic theories in psychology (such as that on dissonance theory – see Festinger 1957) shows that the connection is bidirectional and that cognition and behaviour are so closely tied that it is difficult to change one without changing the other (e.g.

Cooper and Fazio 1984). Cognition in context In most cases, context specific social and physical knowledge drives or influences information processing. Some theorists view “cognition as an adaptive process that emerges from the interaction between an individual and the world, both physical and social” (Smith and Semin 2004, 55).

Features of the environment/context that the individual operates within are thus both recourses for, and constraints on his/her cognition and behaviour (Smith and Semin 2004).The environment is both a supplier of inputs as well as a receiver of inputs and is an interactive and responsive “unit” to human actions, a process of continuous reciprocal causation (Clark 1997).

Can individuals’ cognitive psychology be changed? Theories of schematic bases of belief change are central to our understanding of how we can influence change in individual behaviour. Even though schemata are very resistant to change, it can change through experience and exposure to incongruent information ( information that does not fit with the content of the excising schema) (Crocker, Fiske and Taylor 1984).

  1. Incongruent information leads to schematic change via accommodation and assimilation (Inhelder and Piaget 1958).
  2. In most cases, incongruent information simply assimilates into the existing corresponding schema, rather than the schema accommodating or adjusting to the incongruent information (Crocker et al.1984).

People are attentive to incongruent information, but research has revealed that such information is rarely processed completely via short-term memory and then stored in long-term memory. Instead, incongruent information is often labelled “fake,” and consequently, existing mental examples do not update (ibid).

  1. Several schematic features can change when faced with incongruent information.
  2. First, new variables can be added to the schema and old ones discarded.
  3. Second, default values associated with the schematic variables can change.
  4. Third, the vertical and horizontal structure of the categories and sub-categories that compose the schema can change.

Fourth, what is mentally considered a prototype or “good example” can change. But the more developed a schema is, the more resistant it is to change, although any change that does stick is likely to have large consequences for other schemata (Fiske et al.1983).

Which theory focuses on mental processes and internal mental states?

Functionalism is a theory about the nature of mental states. According to functionalism, mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made of. This can be understood by thinking about artifacts like mousetraps and keys. In particular, the original motivation for functionalism comes from the helpful comparison of minds with computers.

But that is only an analogy. The main arguments for functionalism depend on showing that it is superior to its primary competitors: identity theory and behaviorism. Contrasted with behaviorism, functionalism retains the traditional idea that mental states are internal states of thinking creatures. Contrasted with identity theory, functionalism introduces the idea that mental states are multiply realized.

Objectors to functionalism generally charge that it classifies too many things as having mental states, or at least more states than psychologists usually accept. The effectiveness of the arguments for and against functionalism depends in part on the particular variety in question, and whether it is a stronger or weaker version of the theory.

What perspective considers the mental processes and products of perception?

Cognitive Psychology is the science of how we think. It’s concerned with our inner mental processes such as attention, perception, memory, action planning, and language. Each of these components are pivotal in forming who we are and how we behave. The thoughts related to these concepts can be conscious or nonconscious – we might consciously make an effort to focus our attention on a lecture for example, but the light flickering in the room could trigger a nonconscious shift elsewhere.

  1. Many cognitive psychologists refer to this field as encompassing both the traditional cognitive psychology approach and also cognitive neuroscience,
  2. Cognitive neuroscience is a field that uses neuroimaging methods to examine cognitive processes – it has many overlaps with cognitive psychology, and takes a similar approach and worldview, but offers a route to visualize the brain activity that is associated with these inner thoughts.

Cognitive psychology also has many overlaps with cognitive neuropsychology (primarily concerned with the effects of brain damage on cognition) and to an extent, with computational neuroscience (concerned with creating computational models of brain function).

What did the psychological perspective of structuralism focus on?

Frequently Asked Questions –

What is the relationship between functionalism and structuralism? Structuralism was the first school of thought to emerge in psychology. Functionalism was formed as a direct response to structuralism. Where the structuralists believed psychology was about understanding the structures of the mind, the functionalists believed the goal of psychology was to understand the purpose of thoughts and behaviors. What are the similarities between structuralism and functionalism? While structuralism and functionalism took different approaches to understand human thought and behavior, they share a few important similarities. Both were interested in understanding how the elements of the mind worked together to produce actions. Both schools of thought also wanted to know more about what happens in the mind in response to the environment. How did the methods of early structuralists and functionalists differ? Structuralism studied the contents of the mind through the use of lab experiments and introspection. Functionalism, on the other hand, was more interested in using direct observation and fieldwork in order to better understand the adaptive function of behavior.

By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is the author of the “Everything Psychology Book (2nd Edition)” and has written thousands of articles on diverse psychology topics. Kendra holds a Master of Science degree in education from Boise State University with a primary research interest in educational psychology and a Bachelor of Science in psychology from Idaho State University with additional coursework in substance use and case management.

What is the difference between structuralism and functionalism?

What is the main difference between structuralism and functionalism? Structuralism is the interpretation of the perception of the world through our senses, and understanding our environment. Structuralism focuses on consciousness and perception. Functionalism focuses on why human behavior changes.

Is psychology the study of mental processes?

Body Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychologists are actively involved in studying and understanding mental processes, brain functions, and behavior. The field of psychology is considered a “Hub Science” with strong connections to the medical sciences, social sciences, and education (Boyack, Klavans, & Borner, 2005).

Which theory is used to find mental abilities of individual?

The theory of multiple intelligences proposed by Howard Gardner (1983) views that intelligence consists of different abilities.

What are mental processes in psychology?

Mental processes encompass all the things that the human mind can do naturally. Common mental processes include memory, emotion, perception, imagination, thinking and reasoning. Since the human mind is constantly active, mental processes are continuously relevant and affecting or intaking events from daily life.

What is cognitive perspective and behaviorist perspective?

Behavioral vs Cognitive Perspectives on Learning Theories In the study of learning, there are two major perspectives that attempt to explain the components of learning. The two perspective are behavioral and cognitive approaches. Behavioral approaches view learning as a behavior.

  1. The behavior is observable and can be measured.
  2. Cognitive approaches explain learning as the acquisition of knowledge and the processing of information.
  3. In many ways, these two schools of thought on learning reflect the Greek philosophies studied in an earlier,
  4. Recall that realism was about the senses just as behaviorism is about seeing a change in behavior.

In addition, idealism was focused on what is happening inside the mind just as cognitivism is. There are several big questions in the field of learning theory that both of these perspectives attempt to answer. The questions are

How does learning occur? What is the role of memory? What is the role of motivation? How does transfer occur? What processes are involved in self-regulation? What does this mean for teaching?

In this post, we will examine the first 2 questions. The next post will look at the last four. How Does Learning Occur? Behavioral theories stress the importance of the environment in encouraging learning. Behaviorists speak a great deal about stimulus response.

The stimulus comes from the environment and the individual responds. Behaviorists see learning as an experience in reinforcement. Individual difference is not a major concern as everyone should act in a similar manner when facing similar stimuli. Cognitivist agree with the influence of the environment in learning but downplay its role.

For them, learning is about how students’ encode, store, and or transfer learning within their mind. The learner’s thoughts play an important role in their learning. Reflection and asking questions all play a part in the learning of students. What is the Role of Memory? Behavorists have a simple notion of learning.

If some one remembers something it is because they are reinforced connection due to stimulus response. Forgetting for behavorists is caused from a lack of response to stimuli over time. Connections fade due to lack of use. For this reason, a teacher should review material occasionally to maintain the connections the students have developed.

This will help in remembering what they learned. Cognitivist see memory as the encoding of information in the mind. It is similar to storing data on a hard drive. From this perspective, forgetting is the inability to retrieve a memory. This can be caused by interference, lack of adequate mental triggers, or a loss of memory.

These are all problems we sometimes face when dealing with computers. For teachers, this means helping students to organize what they learn and connect it to what they already know. By doing this, it assures that they will remember. Conclusion The goal is not to lift up one approach over the other. In reality, teachers should use a combination of the two approaches when appropriate to help their students.

It is left to the teacher to know what will work and when as they try to help students to learn. : Behavioral vs Cognitive Perspectives on Learning Theories

What is behaviorist perspective and humanistic perspective?

Humanistic behaviorism: The essence of effective behavior-based safety My September issue ISHN contribution illustrated the complexity of the human side of safety by reviewing seven dimensions of people–Behavior, Attitude, Sensation, Imagery, Cognition, Interpersonal, and Drugs (BASIC ID).

I recommended addressing the human dynamics of safety by starting with behavior and the mission to “act people into constructive safety-related attitudes, perceptions, cognitions, images, and interpersonal support.” This follow-up article provides the evidence-based framework for my recommendation, and practical intervention strategies.

Behaviorism was made popular by B.F. Skinner 1 and humanism was developed by Carl Rogers 2, These philosophies are often presented as opposing, even competing, perspectives. Behaviorists treat only the behavior of their clients, applying positive consequences for desirable behavior and removing positive consequences for undesirable behavior.

  1. Humanists target people‘s intentions, focusing on discovering a client’s personal perceptions, motives, and self-concept.
  2. The humanist’s clinical approach is nondirective.
  3. The therapist does more listening than instructing.
  4. Behavioral therapists are directive.
  5. They define behavioral consequences that can be changed to increase desired behavior and decrease undesirable behavior.

Still, B.F. Skinner was honored with “Humanist of the Year” in 1972, and he affirmed that “Behaviorism makes it possible to achieve the goals of humanism more effectively.” 3 For years I have proposed “humanistic behaviorism” as an intervention approach.

What are the two types of behaviorist perspectives?

Behavioral Therapy – Aspects of behaviorism are still applied today in behavioral therapy. Two common types of behavioral therapy include applied behavior analysis (ABA) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).13 ABA takes advantage of operant conditioning, using it to modify problematic behaviors or encourage preferable ones.13 CBT is loosely based on the principles of behaviorism, as it also takes into account an important cognitive element in humans.

Therapists using CBT will focus on the thoughts behind an individual’s behavior. CBT is considered by many to be the gold standard in treating disorders such as anxiety, anger issues, and substance abuse and relapse prevention.14 However, behavioral therapy is not always sufficient for complex mental health conditions.

Behavioral therapy can help cope with some aspects of complex conditions, such as severe depression, however, it cannot be used alone.15 Just like the shortcomings of behaviorism, behavioral therapy overlooks the bigger picture by failing to address the effects that unique situations, interpersonal relationships, and unobservable behaviors can have on a patient.15

What is the approach to psychology emphasized the study of mental processes and focused on inner sensations feelings and thoughts?

Psychodynamic Psychology – Perhaps the school of psychology that is most familiar to the general public is the psychodynamic approach to understanding behaviour, which was championed by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and his followers. Psychodynamic psychology is an approach to understanding human behaviour that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories, Which View Of Psychology Emphasized The Study Of Mental Processes Alone Figure 1.6 Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud and the other psychodynamic psychologists believed that many of our thoughts and emotions are unconscious. Psychotherapy was designed to help patients recover and confront their “lost” memories. Freud’s ideas were extended by other psychologists whom he influenced, including Carl Jung (1875-1961), Alfred Adler (1870-1937), Karen Horney (1855-1952), and Erik Erikson (1902-1994).

These and others who follow the psychodynamic approach believe that it is possible to help the patient if the unconscious drives can be remembered, particularly through a deep and thorough exploration of the person’s early sexual experiences and current sexual desires. These explorations are revealed through talk therapy and dream analysis in a process called psychoanalysis,

The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily practitioners who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms. Although they did not conduct much research on their ideas, and although later, more sophisticated tests of their theories have not always supported their proposals, psychodynamics has nevertheless had substantial impact on the field of psychology, and indeed on thinking about human behaviour more generally (Moore & Fine, 1995).

What approach to the study of learning emphasizes mental processes and previous knowledge?

Cognitive. Cognitive psychology emphasizes all mental processes, such as memory, thinking, perception, language, and learning. It also looks at how our thoughts or interpretations of situations can impact responses, emotions, and behaviors.