Who Can Be Said To Have Inaugurated The Era Of Modern Psychology?
- Sabrina Sarro
QuestionAnswer Modern psychology shares which of the following characteristics with ancient Greek philosophy? An interest in the same kinds of questions about human nature Which theory suggests that “the times make the person”? naturalistic “The man makes the times,” reflects which view of history? personalistic The stage in the development of a science when it is still divided into schools of thought is called _. preparadigmatic When _ enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, the administration arranged a separate dining table for her/him Francis Sumner The _ theory would support the claim: “Freud was instrumental in discovering psychoanalysis. If not for Freud, no other psychologist would have been able to undercover the human psyche.” personalistic The hallmark of psychology’s separation from philosophy was its reliance on _. experimentation In contrast to the events that are studied in science, historical events cannot be _. repeated Simultaneous discovery favors which view of history? naturalistic In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because _. his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory The term “Zeitgeist” refers to _. the intellectual and cultural climate of the times In the first years of psychology’s emergence as a new discipline, which man determined its direction? Wilhelm Wundt According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has _. engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole Freud’s idea “Einfall” was translated to English into the term _ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German. free association The various schools of thought in psychology have served well as systems to be opposed. In each case, _ was the consequence. a new school of thought An “autobiography” of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who _. altered and/or deleted some of Jung’s writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers In Kuhn’s philosophy of science, when Einstein’s theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) _ occurred. scientific revolution The contextual forces in psychology deal with the _. social, economical, and political factors that influenced the field. The term historiography refers to _. the techniques, principles, and issues involved in historical research The three contextual forces in the history of psychology were _. economic opportunities, wars, and discrimination Materialism is the belief that _. all things can be described in physical terms Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics? effects are predictable and measurable Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology? Descartes Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of _ apply. mechanics The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is _. reductionism Which of the following statements best describes Descartes’ dualistic theory of human nature? The mind and body mutually influence each other’s actions John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Locke, _. the mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas Which philosopher believed that the only things that humans know with certainty are those objects that are perceived? George Berkeley For Locke, ideas are the result of _. sensations and reflection The idea that science should be based totally on objectively observable facts is called _. positivism According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was _. mechanism _ are mechanized figures that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things. Automata According to Locke, simple ideas become complex ideas through the process of _. reflection The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to _. the mind-body problem Hartley was the first to apply the theory of association to explain _. all mental activity The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is _. determinism For Locke, the difference between a simple and a complex idea is that a simple idea _. cannot be reduced Complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities. This is a definition of _. John Stuart Mill’s creative synthesis Derived ideas _. arise from the direct application of an external stimulus The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is _. mechanism Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology? Descartes James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a(n) _. machine Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of _ apply. mechanics Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of _. Comte Which British empiricist championed women’s rights and condemned the unequal status of women? John Stuart Mill the most radically mechanistic of the Brit empiricists,claimed the mind is machine & there’s no freedom of will; believed the mind is a passive entity & all thought can be analyzed in terms of sensations. James Mill While Hartley’s fundamental law of association was _, he also proposed that _ was necessary for associations to be formed. contiguity; repetition The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is _. reductionism Empiricism attributes all knowledge to _. experience John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Locke, _. the mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain _. where the mind and body interact The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by _. Newton and Galileo Why was the mechanical clock a revolutionary invention? Clocks brought precision, regularity, and predictability to everyday life, which was later developed into a model for science. For Locke, the difference between a simple and a complex idea is that a simple idea _. cannot be reduced The doctrine of _ is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists. innate ideas _ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence. Babbage’s calculating machine The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is _. mechanism Materialism is the belief that _. all things can be described in physical terms What was the significance of the defecating duck? 1. It demonstrated the Zeitgeist of the time.2. It was one example of the spirit of mechanism.3. It was widely popular and well-known.4. All of the above.100% 5. It was described as the “glory of France.” Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that _. the mind influenced the body Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting shows that _. material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was _. consciousness Act psychology, in contrast to Wundt’s approach, claimed that psychology should _. study mental processes or functions and not mental structure The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to _. Brentano Wundt’s system is most accurately identified as _. experimental psychology In Wundt’s laboratory, introspection was used to assess _. immediate experience Wundt classified sensations according to which characteristics? intensity, duration, and sense modality Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt’s experimental conditions? Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences. Given that many of his research findings remain valid today, _ can be seen as more influential than _. Ebbinghaus; Wundt Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe’s view is known as _. imageless thought Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he _. successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory Brentano’s system of psychology was called _ psychology. Act Stumpf’s method of observation was _. phenomenology Which of the following methods is defined as “the examination of experience as it occurred without any attempt to reduce experience to elementary components.” Phenomenology Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because _. they were influenced by language and aspects thereof Other than Stumpf’s research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been _. educating the founders of Gestalt psychology Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings? pleasure/displeasure; tension/relaxation; excitement/depression. This person was influenced by Fechner’s rigid and systematic use of measurement in developing his own methods for researching higher level cognitive processes. Hermann Ebbinghaus In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could _. not pay attention to two things at once While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong? Ebbinghaus One of Helmholtz’s particular contributions to psychology was his work on _. vision The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the _. extirpation method The most effective criticisms of phrenology came from whom? Flourens _ created phrenology, which proposed that the topography of a person’s skull revealed his or her intellectual and emotional characteristics. Gall The representation of the nervous system as a complex switching system reveals the 19th-century reliance on _. mechanism How did the British empiricists (BritE) and the German physiologists (GerP) differ in their approach to the study of the senses? The BritE studied the senses from the viewpoint of philosophy. The GerP used scientific methods to study the senses. _ discovered the law, S = K log R. Fechner What is the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli? just noticeable difference _ was a pioneer in research on reflex behavior showing that reflexes could occur in the absence of brain involvement. Hall Who developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference? Weber Weber’s Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the _. just noticeable difference Until the work of _, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology.J. Müller The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is _. Galvani In the 19th century, the British and French defined science as including _. physics and chemistry only Who discovered the direction of travel of nerve impulses in the brain and spinal cord? Cajal _ discovered, among other things, that the brain had both white and gray matter, and that fiber connect the two halves of the brain. Gall Fechner’s work had proved Immanuel Kant wrong when Kant said that _. psychology could never be a science The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was _. the inductive method In modern medicine, the cause of a person’s dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, _ clinical research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology. Broca’s With regard to the speed of the nerve impulse, perhaps the most important conclusion of Helmholtz’s research for psychology was the determination _. that thought and movement are not simultaneous J Müller found that nerves only give information characteristic of the sense associated with it. This means that when an auditory nerve is stimulated, it will result in someone hearing a sound, even when no noise is present. Müller called this _. the doctrine of the specific energies of nerves Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition? Helmholtz The calculation of the mean of a group of scores is the same as Fechner’s _. method of average error _ systematically destroyed parts of the brain using extirpation. psychology could never be a science In Fechner’s Law as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases _. geometrically The point of sensitivity below which no sensation can be detected and above which sensation can be experienced is a definition of the _. absolute threshold Fechner’s flash of insight about the mind-body connection was that there is a(n) _ relationship between a mental sensation and a material stimulus. quantitative Fechner’s most important contribution to psychology was the _. quantification of the mind-body relationship German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because _. there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike Late in his career, Fechner noted that the idea for describing the mind-body relationship _. had not been suggested to him by Weber’s work Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because _. they were influenced by language and aspects thereof For Brentano, the primary research method was _. observation Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because _. it was not seen as having practical value For Wundt, feelings are _. based on three dimensions including pleasure/displeasure Wundt classified sensations according to which characteristics? intensity, duration, and sense modality According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely _. sensation and feelings This person was influenced by Fechner’s rigid and systematic use of measurement in developing his own methods for researching higher level cognitive processes Hermann Ebbinghaus The fundamental purpose of creating nonsense syllables was to _. control for previous learning The ultimate fate of Wundt’s laboratory at Leipzig was that it _. was destroyed by allied bombing raids in World War II In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could _. not pay attention to two things at once Wundt’s modification of introspection was the _. use of experimental controls Which of the following methods is defined as “the examination of experience as it occurred without any attempt to reduce experience to elementary components.” Phenomenology Stumpf and Wundt engaged in a bitter fight over the topic of _. the introspection of tones The significance of Ebbinghaus’s work is in his _. rigorous use of experimental control and his quantitative analysis of data Wundt established psychology as distinct from philosophy primarily in terms of its _. use of the experimental method Wundt’s system is most accurately identified as _. experimental psychology In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in _. physiological psychology _ work on _ was the first “venture into a truly psychological problem area” rather than on physiology. Ebbinghaus’; learning While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong? Ebbinghaus Wundt’s doctrine of apperception refers to _. the process of organizing mental elements into a whole Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting shows that _. material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was _. consciousness Act psychology, in contrast to Wundt’s approach, claimed that psychology should _. study mental processes or functions and not mental structure The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to _. Brentano In Wundt’s laboratory, introspection was used to assess _. immediate experience Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt’s experimental conditions? Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences. Given that many of his research findings remain valid today, _ can be seen as more influential than _. Ebbinghaus; Wundt Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe’s view is known as _. imageless thought Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he _. successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory Brentano’s system of psychology was called _ psychology. Act Stumpf’s method of observation was _. phenomenology Other than Stumpf’s research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been _. educating the founders of Gestalt psychology Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings? pleasure/displeasure; tension/relaxation; excitement/depression. Wundt’s term voluntarism reflects his emphasis on the _. power of the will to organize the contents of the mind The first system or school of thought in psychology was called _. voluntarism by Wundt Titchener noted that the first significant advance in the study of learning since Aristotle was _. the development of the nonsense syllable Research suggests that many psychology historians consider _ to be the most important psychologist of all time. Wundt The Gestalt psychologists’ best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt’s principle of _. apperception Wundt’s theory of feelings was based on _. his own introspections Who discovered the direction of travel of nerve impulses in the brain and spinal cord? Cajal Empiricism attributes all knowledge to _. experience In modern medicine, the cause of a person’s dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, _ clinical research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology. Broca’s Descartes proposed that the mind produces two kinds of ideas, _ and _. derived; innate The response of salivation following the stimulus of food on the tongue is an illustration of Descartes’ _ reflex action theory The point of sensitivity below which no sensation can be detected and above which sensation can be experienced is a definition of the _. absolute threshold _ was a pioneer in research on reflex behavior showing that reflexes could occur in the absence of brain involvement. Hall Which British empiricist championed women’s rights and condemned the unequal status of women? John Stuart Mill James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a(n) _. machine Late in his career, Fechner noted that the idea for describing the mind-body relationship _. had not been suggested to him by Weber’s work Which of the following is an example of an innate idea? infinity J. Müller found that nerves only give information characteristic of the sense associated with it. This means that when an auditory nerve is stimulated, it will result in someone hearing a sound, even when no noise is present. Müller called this _. the doctrine of the specific energies of nerves Skinner’s self-discipline as a student and Freud’s being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that _. participants may themselves produce biased accounts Modern psychology differs from philosophy in which of the following ways? Modern psychology uses objective methods to study questions. Philosophy depends upon speculation and intuition in order to answer questions. Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of _. Comte Currently, psychology _. has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms and may be more fragmented than at any time in its history What was the significance of the defecating duck? 1. All of the above.100% 2. It was widely popular and well-known.3. It was described as the “glory of France.” 4. It demonstrated the Zeitgeist of the time.5. It was one example of the spirit of mechanism. _ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence. Babbage’s calculating machine For Locke, ideas are the result of _. sensations and reflection When _ enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, the administration arranged a separate dining table for her/him. Francis Sumner Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as _. All of the choices are correct One of Helmholtz’s particular contributions to psychology was his work on _. vision While Hartley’s fundamental law of association was _, he also proposed that _ was necessary for associations to be formed. contiguity; repetition Modern psychology shares which of the following characteristics with ancient Greek philosophy? An interest in the same kinds of questions about human nature In the 19th century, the British and French defined science as including _. physics and chemistry only Simultaneous discovery favors which view of history? naturalistic Fechner’s work had proved Immanuel Kant wrong when Kant said that _. psychology could never be a science Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition? Helmholtz Derived ideas _. arise from the direct application of an external stimulus Freud’s idea “Einfall” was translated to English into the term _ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German. free association Complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities. This is a definition of _. John Stuart Mill’s creative synthesis The idea of a house is an example of Descartes’ notion of _. derived ideas As a scientific discipline, psychology is _. one of the newest and one of the oldest A school of thought emerges whenever _. a group shares a theoretical orientation and investigates similar problems Empiricism attributes all knowledge to _. experience According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was _. mechanism Currently, psychology _. has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms and may be more fragmented than at any time in its history Which psychologist burned his/her own letters, manuscripts, and research notes before s/he died? John Watson The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by _. Newton and Galileo The terms ego and id, which do not precisely represent Freud’s ideas, are examples of _. data distorted by translation The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to _. the mind-body problem The term “Zeitgeist” refers to _. the intellectual and cultural climate of the times An “autobiography” of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who _. altered and/or deleted some of Jung’s writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as _. All of the choices are correct Weber’s Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the _. just noticeable difference _ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence. Babbage’s calculating machine Late in his career, Fechner noted that the idea for describing the mind-body relationship _. had not been suggested to him by Weber’s work While Hartley’s fundamental law of association was _, he also proposed that _ was necessary for associations to be formed. contiguity; repetition Freud’s idea “Einfall” was translated to English into the term _ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German. free association J Müller found that nerves only give information characteristic of the sense associated with it. This means that when an auditory nerve is stimulated, it will result in someone hearing a sound, even when no noise is present. Müller called this _. the doctrine of the specific energies of nerves Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of _ apply. mechanics _ discovered the law, S = K log R. Fechner Perhaps the most valuable outcome of the study of the history of psychology is that one will learn the _. relationships among psychology’s ideas, theories, and research strategies Fechner’s work had proved Immanuel Kant wrong when Kant said that _. psychology could never be a science Skinner’s self-discipline as a student and Freud’s being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that _. participants may themselves produce biased accounts The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was _. the inductive method The most effective criticisms of phrenology came from whom? Flourens For Descartes, the application of mathematical principles to sciences would produce _. certainty of knowledge The calculation of the mean of a group of scores is the same as Fechner’s _. method of average error What was the most influential doctrine to modern psychology? Empiricism Other than Stumpf’s research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been _. educating the founders of Gestalt psychology In Wundt’s laboratory, introspection was used to assess _. immediate experience The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by _. Romanes The Gestalt psychologists’ best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt’s principle of _. apperception For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was _. consciousness Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of _. the effects of childhood experiences on the adult According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect _. the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener’s definition of _. consciousness For Wundt, feelings are _. based on three dimensions including pleasure/displeasure According to Wundt, psychology should be concerned with the study of _. immediate experience Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because _. they were influenced by language and aspects thereof Which of the following are influenced by Galton’s work? 1. statistical techniques 2. testing methods 3. All of the above.100% 4. heredity 5. child development Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt’s experimental conditions? Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences. _ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory. Lyell Wundt’s system is most accurately identified as _. experimental psychology Wundt’s theory of feelings was based on _. his own introspections Who first highlighted the importance of central tendency? Quetelet Ebbinghaus measured the rate of human learning by _. counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material Provided that students and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was _ to them. kind and helpful Külpe’s method emphasized all of the following except _. investigating unconscious processes Wundt established psychology as distinct from philosophy primarily in terms of its _. use of the experimental method The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by _. Darwin’s evidence Ordinary words such as “table” were not to be used by Titchener’s introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to _. develop a working vocabulary free of meaning The psychological study of music was pioneered by _. Stumpf Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe’s view is known as _. imageless thought Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of _. retrospection Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt’s system, including _. apperception Galton’s Hereditary Genius was mainly concerned with _. a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed? Quetelet Galton’s measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and _. acuteness of the senses For Titchener, distinct sensations combined with others to form _. perceptions and ideas Toward the end of Titchener’s career, he came to favor the _ method instead of the _ method. phenomenological; introspective Titchener’s definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is _. conscious experience According to the textbook, a significant contribution of structuralism was _. its service as a target for criticism Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt’s system, including _. apperception In his treatment of women, Titchener _. demonstrated both support of and obstruction of women in psychology Who scolded Titchener for still practicing “a very old fashioned standpoint” in excluding women from psychology meetings? Ladd-Franklin By the 1920s the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was _. existential _ was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology. Margaret Floy Washburn Ordinary words such as “table” were not to be used by Titchener’s introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to _. develop a working vocabulary free of meaning Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women: were too pure to smoke. One of the main reasons that Titchener’s thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener _. translated Wundt’s books from German into English Titchener opposed the development of areas such as child psychology and animal psychology because _. these areas did not focus on discovering the structures of mind Feelings or emotions lack clearness because _. if we focus on them to determine clearness, the feeling or emotion disappears. The influence of mechanism on Titchener is exemplified in his _. use of the chemistry term reagents instead of observers Titchener’s research identified three elements of consciousness: sensations, affective states, and _. images Titchener’s research led him to conclude that affective states had only _ dimension(s); namely _. one; pleasure/displeasure In addition to introspection, another criticism of Titchener’s system was its _. artificiality and sterility Provided that students and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was _ to them. kind and helpful In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to _. be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind Which of the of the following statements best summarizes the protest of functional psychology against Wundt and Titchener? Functional psychology claimed that Wundt’s and Titchener’s approaches were too restrictive because they did not study the practical value of mental processes. To study mental imagery, Galton used which self-report method? the questionnaire _ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory. Lyell The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his _. use of the anecdotal method According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect _. the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of _. the effects of childhood experiences on the adult Today, our acceptance that the study of individual differences is appropriate subject matter for psychology is due to whose work? Galton _ is the preeminent book of Darwin’s theory of evolution, which details the evolution of humans from lower forms of life. On the Origin of Species The most important consequence of functionalism was _. the development of applied psychology The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were _. Morgan Galton proposed that measurement of human traits could be defined and summarized by two numbers, which are _. the mean and the standard deviation Which of the following did Galton not endorse in the material from Hereditary Genius? the idea of natural equality One of the early sources of modern child psychology was an article in 1877 by _.C. Darwin Galton argued that what proportion of eminence could be reliably attributed to environmental influences? 0% Darwin’s ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin’s work was his _. hard data to support such a theory A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was _. the legitimization of nonexperimental descriptive methods When in England, Darwin displayed a wide variety of physical symptoms. These symptoms were probably _. psychosomatic-neurotic in origin A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by _. Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the _. fact of variation among members of the species The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by _. Darwin’s evidence Who could be described as the driving force of England’s scientific establishment? Huxley Which of the following are influenced by Galton’s work? All of the above. Today, scientists are sometimes portrayed as offering science as a new religion or as being enemies of religion. This stance could be traced to _. Huxley _ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Galton studied paranoid disorders by _. imaging that every person or thing he saw was spying on him Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution? Galton Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed? Quetelet What had the greatest impact upon Galton’s view on the measurement of intelligence? Locke’s theory that all knowledge comes through the senses The influence of Darwin’s work can be seen most directly in _. comparative psychology The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by _. Romanes Who first highlighted the importance of central tendency? Quetelet The _ ask, “What’s the mind made of?” whereas the _ demand, “What does it do?” structuralists; functionalists Galton’s measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and _. acuteness of the senses The essential difference between Wallace’s theory of evolution and Darwin’s was that the work of the former _. did not have empirical data to support it _, a predecessor of Darwin, speculated that all mammals had evolved from a single filament and given movement by God. Erasmus Darwin The hallmark of Woodworth’s psychology was his _. focus on motivation For Angell, functionalism was to study the adaptive utility of _. consciousness John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, “The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology.” What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper? Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism. Who was the earliest to argue that the mind exists in its present form because of past and present efforts to adapt to various environments? Spencer Who was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association? Hall What is often considered to be the first psychology laboratory in the United States was established by _. Hall Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing? Hollerith Which of the following statement expresses the James-Lange theory of emotions? Physiological arousal precedes the experience of an emotion. The “myth of male intellectual superiority” is derived from which of Darwin’s ideas? variability hypothesis Functionalism was most loudly criticized by the _. structuralists Who arranged for Freud and Jung to visit and lecture in America? Hall James described the manuscript of his book, The Principles of Psychology, as testimony to the fact that _. a “science of psychology” did not exist The notion of analysis of consciousness is, in James’s view, the _. psychologists’ fallacy In his presidential address to the American Psychological Association, Angell presented the goals of functional psychology. Which of the following statements represents the main concern of functionalism according to Angell? Functionalism tries to answer why mental processes exist and how they aid survival. Who stated that the subject matter of psychology was mental activity? Carr _ was one major area that G.S. Hall was interested in, as evidenced by his research in his doctoral dissertation. Space perception For James, what was most essential to human evolution? consciousness The basic tenet of _ is that the validity of an idea or conception must be tested by its practical consequences pragmatism Which of the following statements is NOT part of social Darwinism? Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor. A unique aspect of Woolley’s dissertation research was the _. attribution of sex differences to social and environmental factors Scott’s hypothesis that consumers will do what they are told is called the _. law of suggestibility Cattell was a strong proponent of _. eugenics The main reason Wundt’s and Titchener’s systems did not survive in the United States was that they _. were not pragmatic If a 10-year-old can perform the same tasks as the average 15-year-old, then the child’s _ is 15 and _ is 150. mental age; IQ score In 1900, the American public’s response to the new science of psychology was _. to embrace it One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that _. public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children? Goodenough Who wrote The Theory and Practice of Advertising, the first book on the psychology of advertising? Scott The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were _. World War II and the VA hospital system The first effective tests of higher mental processes were developed by _. Binet According to the intelligence testing of U.S. army recruits, which group scored higher on average? White Americans The team approach to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders was introduced by _. Witmer The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American psychology by _. Witmer The first to apply psychology to personnel selection was _. Scott Münsterberg was best known _. through his publications in the popular press on applied psychology Which of the following methods did Cattell develop? the order-of-merit ranking method Scott argued that the most effective advertisement consisted of _. a multiple-media approach The results of testing by the Yerkes research group _. had no impact on recruitment and selection or the war effort as a whole Who revised the Binet intelligence test into what is known as the Stanford-Binet test? Terman Behavioral and cognitive disorders would be attributed most heavily to _ by Witmer. environmental factors Witmer’s “clinical psychology” is today known as _. school psychology With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of African American _ demonstrated the strong effects of environment. Bond Binet based his conclusion about appropriate measure of intelligence based on research conducted with _. his daughters At the end of the 19th century, the field of _ demanded the application of psychological principles to practical problems with rise in private school education. education The first techniques of psychological therapy to be used in America were developed by _. Witmer Binet and Simon’s test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its _. emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence _ used the Binet test at Ellis Island to restrict the entry of immigrants to the United States. Goddard Witmer’s methods of assessment and diagnosis _. were constructed as he needed them To whom did Witmer turn for his diagnostic and treatment approaches? himself
- 1 Who is considered to be the founder of modern psychology?
- 2 Who is the mother of modern psychology?
- 3 What is modern psychology?
- 4 Is Freud the father of modern psychology?
- 5 Who is the father of modern psychotherapy?
- 6 Was the founder of modern psychology William James?
Who is considered to be the founder of modern psychology?
Learning Objectives – By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Understand the importance of Wundt and James in the development of psychology Appreciate Freud’s influence on psychology Understand the basic tenets of Gestalt psychology Appreciate the important role that behaviorism played in psychology’s history Understand basic tenets of humanism Understand how the cognitive revolution shifted psychology’s focus back to the mind
Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century.
When was psychology said to have begun?
Psychology is defined as “the scientific study of behavior and mental processes”. Philosophical interest in the human mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India, Psychology as a field of experimental study began in 1854 in Leipzig, Germany when Gustav Fechner created the first theory of how judgments about sensory experiences are made and how to experiment on them.
Fechner’s theory, recognized today as Signal Detection Theory foreshadowed the development of statistical theories of comparative judgment and thousands of experiments based on his ideas (Link, S.W. Psychological Science, 1995). Later, 1879, Wilhelm Wundt founded in Leipzig, Germany, the first Psychological laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research.
Wundt was also the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist. A notable precursor of Wundt was Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) who designated himself Professor of Empirical Psychology and Logic in 1783 and gave lectures on empirical psychology at the Old University of Münster, Germany.
Other important early contributors to the field include Hermann Ebbinghaus (a pioneer in the study of memory ), William James (the American father of pragmatism ), and Ivan Pavlov (who developed the procedures associated with classical conditioning ). Soon after the development of experimental psychology, various kinds of applied psychology appeared.G.
Stanley Hall brought scientific pedagogy to the United States from Germany in the early 1880s. John Dewey ‘s educational theory of the 1890s was another example. Also in the 1890s, Hugo Münsterberg began writing about the application of psychology to industry, law, and other fields.
Lightner Witmer established the first psychological clinic in the 1890s. James McKeen Cattell adapted Francis Galton ‘s anthropometric methods to generate the first program of mental testing in the 1890s. In Vienna, meanwhile, Sigmund Freud developed an independent approach to the study of the mind called psychoanalysis, which has been widely influential.
The 20th century saw a reaction to Edward Titchener ‘s critique of Wundt’s empiricism. This contributed to the formulation of behaviorism by John B. Watson, which was popularized by B.F. Skinner, Behaviorism proposed emphasizing the study of overt behavior, because that could be quantified and easily measured.
Early behaviorists considered the study of the ” mind ” too vague for productive scientific study. However, Skinner and his colleagues did study thinking as a form of covert behavior to which they could apply the same principles as overt (publicly observable) behavior. The final decades of the 20th century saw the rise of cognitive science, an interdisciplinary approach to studying the human mind.
Cognitive science again considers the “mind” as a subject for investigation, using the tools of cognitive psychology, linguistics, computer science, philosophy, behaviorism, and neurobiology, This form of investigation has proposed that a wide understanding of the human mind is possible, and that such an understanding may be applied to other research domains, such as artificial intelligence,
There are conceptual divisions of psychology in so-called “forces” or “waves,” based on its schools and historical trends. This terminology is popularized among the psychologists to differentiate a growing humanism in therapeutic practice from the 1930s onwards, called the “third force,” in response to the deterministic tendencies of Watson’s behaviourism and Freud’s psychoanalysis.
Humanistic psychology has as important proponents Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Gordon Allport, Erich Fromm, and Rollo May, Their humanistic concepts are also related to existential psychology, Viktor Frankl ‘s logotherapy, positive psychology (which has Martin Seligman as one of the leading exponents), C.R.
Cloninger ‘s approach to well-being and character development, as well as to transpersonal psychology, incorporating such concepts as spirituality, self-transcendence, self-realization, self-actualization, and mindfulness, In cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, similar terms have also been incorporated, by which “first wave” is considered the initial behavioral therapy ; a “second wave”, Albert Ellis ‘s cognitive one ; and a “third wave”, with the acceptance and commitment therapy, which emphasizes one’s pursuit of values, methods of self-awareness, acceptance and psychological flexibility, instead of challenging negative thought schemes,
A “fourth wave” would be the one that incorporates transpersonal concepts and positive flourishing, in a way criticized by some researchers for its heterogeneity and theoretical direction dependent on the therapist’s view. A “fifth wave” has now been proposed by a group of researchers seeking to integrate earlier concepts into a unifying theory.
Who was the first person referred to as a psychologist?
A Word From Verywell – Wundt was not only the very first person to refer to himself as a psychologist; he also established psychology as a formal discipline separate from philosophy and biology. While his introspective method does not meet the empirical rigor of research today, his emphasis on experimental methods did pave the way for the future of experimental psychology.
- Thanks to his work and contributions, a whole new field was established and inspired other researchers to explore and study the human mind and behavior.
- Obviously, not everyone is going to agree with these generalized titles.
- A few people might suggest that Freud is the father of psychology since he is perhaps one of its most “known” figures.
Others might suggest that Aristotle is the true father of psychology since he is responsible for the theoretical and philosophical framework that contributed to psychology’s earliest beginnings. Still others might argue that those earliest researchers such as Helmholtz and Fechner deserve credit as the founders of psychology.
No matter which side of the argument you are on, one thing that is easy to agree on is that all of these individuals had an important influence on the growth and development of psychology. While the theories of each individual are not necessarily as influential now, all of these psychologists were important in their own time and had a major impact on how psychology evolved into what it is today.
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
- Rieber R, Robinson RW, eds. Wilhelm Wundt in History: The Making of A Scientific Psychology, New York, NY: Springer; 2001.
- Henley T. Hergenhahn’s An Introduction to the History of Psychology,8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning; 2019.
- Blumenthal A. The founding father we never knew, Contemporary Psychology,1979; 24(7):547-550. doi:10.1037/018836
- Kim A. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Haggbloom SJ, Warnick R, Warnick JE, et. al. The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century, Review of General Psychology.2002;6(2) : 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2622.214.171.124
- Schultz DP, Schultz SE. A History of Modern Psychology,10th ed. Wadsworth Cengage Learning; 2011.
- Wertheimer MA. Brief History of Psychology,5th ed. New York: Taylor & Francis Group; 2012.
By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is the author of the “Everything Psychology Book (2nd Edition)” and has written thousands of articles on diverse psychology topics. Kendra holds a Master of Science degree in education from Boise State University with a primary research interest in educational psychology and a Bachelor of Science in psychology from Idaho State University with additional coursework in substance use and case management.
Who is the mother of modern psychology?
1921 APA President – Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to earn a doctoral degree in American psychology (1894) and the second woman, after Mary Whiton Calkins, to serve as APA President. Ironically, Calkins earned her doctorate at Harvard in 1894, but the university trustees refused to grant her the degree.
It was the general policy of the era that married women could not serve as teachers or professors in co-educational settings. Thus, Washburn never married and served as a professor at Vassar College for 36 years. She was a skilled researcher and prolific writer. As was the custom, Washburn brought many of her undergraduate students, all women, into her laboratory and included them as authors on many of her publications.
Her principal research interests were animal behavior and the basic psychological processes of sensation and perception. The book she is best known for was ” The Animal Mind ” (1908), which was the first book based on experimental work in animal cognition.
- The book went through many editions and was for a number of years the most widely used book in comparative psychology.
- Following her interest in basic processes, Washburn developed a motor theory of consciousness.
- The theory was most fully developed in her book, “Movement and Mental Imagery” (1916).
- There, she integrated the experimental method of introspection with an emphasis on motor processes.
The basic premise of her work was that thinking was based in movement. Thus, consciousness is linked to motor activity. Beyond serving as APA President, Washburn received many honors. Perhaps her highest honor was being named a Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences.
- She was only the second woman to ever receive that honor.
- A full account of her career can be found in Robert S.
- Woodworth (1948), Margaret Floy Washburn.
- Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, I 25, 275-295,” A more intimate portrait of her life and work that also sets her story in the context of her times can be found in Elizabeth Scarborough and Laurel Furumoto, “Untold Lives: The First Generation of American Women Psychologists” (1989).
Date created: 2012
What is modern psychology?
1.1 Paradigmatic: The Three Major Schools – Scientific paradigms are defined by their explanatory principles, the concomitant concepts and terms, and their preferred methods and values. They are established and maintained by a community of scientists that endorse one and only one paradigm.
- Modern psychology has spawned three major theoretical paradigms: cognitivism, behaviorism, and depth psychology, all of which continue longstanding philosophical traditions.
- In the tradition of rational philosophy, cognitivism regards human beings as reasonable, conscious, reflexive, and self-organizing.
In this view, each person is endowed with insight into natural, logical, and social laws, and may utilize their free will and foresight to plan and execute actions directed towards valued goals. Moreover, humans are seen as sociable and communicative.
- Language is a tool for representing imaginations and intentions both in a person’s own mind and in his or her interaction with others.
- Authors with a cognitive orientation (e.g., Broadbent, Köhler, Piaget) rely on introspection and self-reports (e.g., think-aloud protocols in studies of problem solving), but also collect behavioral data (e.g., operations in the course of problem solving).
Typically, cognitivistic studies employ methods from mathematics, physics (e.g., field theory), or engineering (e.g., information theory) to elucidate the intricacies of mind and behavior. In the tradition of materialism and utilitarianism, behaviorism (in Russia: reflexology) focuses on overt behavior (e.g., locomotion, instrumental acts) elicited by external stimuli (e.g., color signals) and internal stimuli (e.g., thirst), or emitted to take advantage of opportunities in the natural and social environment (e.g., food, praise).
According to this conception, a human being is an automaton capable of forming stimulus-response associations (habits) and of adapting to contingencies between acts and their rewards or punishments (reinforcements). Behaviorism assumes innate, species-specific habits, or instincts (e.g., mating). Authors such as Hull, Pavlov, and Skinner have studied the acquisition of new habits and the shaping of behavior by reinforcements.
Orthodox behaviorism opposes introspection, and relies exclusively on objective behavioral data. In the tradition of mysticism, depth psychology posits a pervading influence of unconscious ideas and affects on conscious thought, language, and action. Freud’s psychoanalysis, the most popular paradigm within depth psychology, contends that the unconscious originates from personal conflicts in early childhood when anxiety-provoking tendencies (primarily hostility towards the parent of opposite sex) are repressed and rejected from the conscious mind.
- In his analytical psychology, Jung even postulates an innate, species-specific unconscious consisting of archetypes.
- These archetypes are explained as fundamental experiences (e.g., motherhood, fire) which have been acquired and transmitted over generations.
- Depth psychology believes in the power of the enlightened human mind to reveal unconscious contents.
However, the revelation of unconscious contents requires skillful interpretations. Beyond straightforward observations, interpretations should offer explanations for the meaning of symbols from the unconscious (e.g., the moon as a symbol of femininity) which are encountered in dreams and other fantasies, as well as in achievements (e.g., in the arts) and failures (e.g., slips of the tongue).
The three major theoretical paradigms gained wide recognition during the first half of the twentieth century; they were also engaged in mutual antagonisms. However, no final verdict has been reached in the battles for dominance. There were some partially successful attempts to reconcile the conflicting paradigms.
At present, conflicts between ‘schools’ have attenuated and orthodoxy has been superseded by eclecticism. For instance, numerous behaviorists now regard cognitions (e.g., attitudes and beliefs) as determinants of behavior, despite their subjective nature, while cognitive theorists accept the notion of unconscious ideas (e.g., subliminal perceptions).
In which country was modern psychology developed?
Learning Objectives –
- Describe the precursors to the establishment of the science of psychology.
- Identify key individuals and events in the history of American psychology.
- Describe the rise of professional psychology in America.
- Develop a basic understanding of the processes of scientific development and change.
- Recognize the role of women and people of color in the history of American psychology.
It is always a difficult question to ask, where to begin to tell the story of the history of psychology. Some would start with ancient Greece; others would look to a demarcation in the late 19th century when the science of psychology was formally proposed and instituted.
These two perspectives, and all that is in between, are appropriate for describing a history of psychology. The interested student will have no trouble finding an abundance of resources on all of these time frames and perspectives ( Goodwin, 2011 ; Leahey, 2012 ; Schultz & Schultz, 2007 ). For the purposes of this module, we will examine the development of psychology in America and use the mid-19th century as our starting point.
For the sake of convenience, we refer to this as a history of modern psychology. The earliest records of a psychological experiment go all the way back to the Pharaoh Psamtik I of Egypt in the 7th Century B.C. Psychology is an exciting field and the history of psychology offers the opportunity to make sense of how it has grown and developed.
The history of psychology also provides perspective. Rather than a dry collection of names and dates, the history of psychology tells us about the important intersection of time and place that defines who we are. Consider what happens when you meet someone for the first time. The conversation usually begins with a series of questions such as, “Where did you grow up?” “How long have you lived here?” “Where did you go to school?” The importance of history in defining who we are cannot be overstated.
Whether you are seeing a physician, talking with a counselor, or applying for a job, everything begins with a history. The same is true for studying the history of psychology; getting a history of the field helps to make sense of where we are and how we got here.
Precursors to American psychology can be found in philosophy and physiology. Philosophers such as John Locke (1632–1704) and Thomas Reid (1710–1796) promoted empiricism, the idea that all knowledge comes from experience. The work of Locke, Reid, and others emphasized the role of the human observer and the primacy of the senses in defining how the mind comes to acquire knowledge.
In American colleges and universities in the early 1800s, these principles were taught as courses on mental and moral philosophy. Most often these courses taught about the mind based on the faculties of intellect, will, and the senses ( Fuchs, 2000 ).
- Philosophical questions about the nature of mind and knowledge were matched in the 19th century by physiological investigations of the sensory systems of the human observer.
- German physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) measured the speed of the neural impulse and explored the physiology of hearing and vision.
His work indicated that our senses can deceive us and are not a mirror of the external world. Such work showed that even though the human senses were fallible, the mind could be measured using the methods of science. In all, it suggested that a science of psychology was feasible.
- An important implication of Helmholtz’s work was that there is a psychological reality and a physical reality and that the two are not identical.
- This was not a new idea; philosophers like John Locke had written extensively on the topic, and in the 19th century, philosophical speculation about the nature of mind became subject to the rigors of science.
The question of the relationship between the mental (experiences of the senses) and the material (external reality) was investigated by a number of German researchers including Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner. Their work was called psychophysics, and it introduced methods for measuring the relationship between physical stimuli and human perception that would serve as the basis for the new science of psychology ( Fancher & Rutherford, 2011 ). Wilhelm Wundt is considered one of the founding figures of modern psychology. The formal development of modern psychology is usually credited to the work of German physician, physiologist, and philosopher Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920). Wundt helped to establish the field of experimental psychology by serving as a strong promoter of the idea that psychology could be an experimental field and by providing classes, textbooks, and a laboratory for training students.
In 1875, he joined the faculty at the University of Leipzig and quickly began to make plans for the creation of a program of experimental psychology. In 1879, he complemented his lectures on experimental psychology with a laboratory experience: an event that has served as the popular date for the establishment of the science of psychology.
The response to the new science was immediate and global. Wundt attracted students from around the world to study the new experimental psychology and work in his lab. Students were trained to offer detailed self-reports of their reactions to various stimuli, a procedure known as introspection,
- The goal was to identify the elements of consciousness,
- In addition to the study of sensation and perception, research was done on mental chronometry, more commonly known as reaction time.
- The work of Wundt and his students demonstrated that the mind could be measured and the nature of consciousness could be revealed through scientific means.
It was an exciting proposition, and one that found great interest in America. After the opening of Wundt’s lab in 1879, it took just four years for the first psychology laboratory to open in the United States ( Benjamin, 2007 ). Wundt’s version of psychology arrived in America most visibly through the work of Edward Bradford Titchener (1867–1927).
A student of Wundt’s, Titchener brought to America a brand of experimental psychology referred to as ” structuralism,” Structuralists were interested in the contents of the mind—what the mind is. For Titchener, the general adult mind was the proper focus for the new psychology, and he excluded from study those with mental deficiencies, children, and animals ( Evans, 1972 ; Titchener, 1909 ).
Experimental psychology spread rather rapidly throughout North America. By 1900, there were more than 40 laboratories in the United States and Canada ( Benjamin, 2000 ). Psychology in America also organized early with the establishment of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1892.
- Titchener felt that this new organization did not adequately represent the interests of experimental psychology, so, in 1904, he organized a group of colleagues to create what is now known as the Society of Experimental Psychologists ( Goodwin, 1985 ).
- The group met annually to discuss research in experimental psychology.
Reflecting the times, women researchers were not invited (or welcome). It is interesting to note that Titchener’s first doctoral student was a woman, Margaret Floy Washburn (1871–1939). Despite many barriers, in 1894, Washburn became the first woman in America to earn a Ph.D. William James was one of the leading figures in a new perspective on psychology called functionalism. While Titchener and his followers adhered to a structural psychology, others in America were pursuing different approaches. William James, G. Stanley Hall, and James McKeen Cattell were among a group that became identified with ” functionalism,” Influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory, functionalists were interested in the activities of the mind—what the mind does.
- An interest in functionalism opened the way for the study of a wide range of approaches, including animal and comparative psychology ( Benjamin, 2007 ).
- William James (1842–1910) is regarded as writing perhaps the most influential and important book in the field of psychology, Principles of Psychology, published in 1890.
Opposed to the reductionist ideas of Titchener, James proposed that consciousness is ongoing and continuous; it cannot be isolated and reduced to elements. For James, consciousness helped us adapt to our environment in such ways as allowing us to make choices and have personal responsibility over those choices.
- At Harvard, James occupied a position of authority and respect in psychology and philosophy.
- Through his teaching and writing, he influenced psychology for generations.
- One of his students, Mary Whiton Calkins (1863–1930), faced many of the challenges that confronted Margaret Floy Washburn and other women interested in pursuing graduate education in psychology.
With much persistence, Calkins was able to study with James at Harvard. She eventually completed all the requirements for the doctoral degree, but Harvard refused to grant her a diploma because she was a woman. Despite these challenges, Calkins went on to become an accomplished researcher and the first woman elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1905 ( Scarborough & Furumoto, 1987 ).G.
- Stanley Hall (1844–1924) made substantial and lasting contributions to the establishment of psychology in the United States.
- At Johns Hopkins University, he founded the first psychological laboratory in America in 1883.
- In 1887, he created the first journal of psychology in America, American Journal of Psychology,
In 1892, he founded the American Psychological Association (APA); in 1909, he invited and hosted Freud at Clark University (the only time Freud visited America). Influenced by evolutionary theory, Hall was interested in the process of adaptation and human development.
Using surveys and questionnaires to study children, Hall wrote extensively on child development and education. While graduate education in psychology was restricted for women in Hall’s time, it was all but non-existent for African Americans. In another first, Hall mentored Francis Cecil Sumner (1895–1954) who, in 1920, became the first African American to earn a Ph.D.
in psychology in America ( Guthrie, 2003 ). James McKeen Cattell (1860–1944) received his Ph.D. with Wundt but quickly turned his interests to the assessment of individual differences, Influenced by the work of Darwin’s cousin, Frances Galton, Cattell believed that mental abilities such as intelligence were inherited and could be measured using mental tests.
Like Galton, he believed society was better served by identifying those with superior intelligence and supported efforts to encourage them to reproduce. Such beliefs were associated with eugenics (the promotion of selective breeding) and fueled early debates about the contributions of heredity and environment in defining who we are.
At Columbia University, Cattell developed a department of psychology that became world famous also promoting psychological science through advocacy and as a publisher of scientific journals and reference works ( Fancher, 1987 ; Sokal, 1980 ). Throughout the first half of the 20th century, psychology continued to grow and flourish in America.
It was large enough to accommodate varying points of view on the nature of mind and behavior. Gestalt psychology is a good example. The Gestalt movement began in Germany with the work of Max Wertheimer (1880–1943). Opposed to the reductionist approach of Wundt’s laboratory psychology, Wertheimer and his colleagues Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), Wolfgang Kohler (1887–1967), and Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) believed that studying the whole of any experience was richer than studying individual aspects of that experience.
The saying “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” is a Gestalt perspective. Consider that a melody is an additional element beyond the collection of notes that comprise it. The Gestalt psychologists proposed that the mind often processes information simultaneously rather than sequentially.
- For instance, when you look at a photograph, you see a whole image, not just a collection of pixels of color.
- Using Gestalt principles, Wertheimer and his colleagues also explored the nature of learning and thinking.
- Most of the German Gestalt psychologists were Jewish and were forced to flee the Nazi regime due to the threats posed on both academic and personal freedoms.
In America, they were able to introduce a new audience to the Gestalt perspective, demonstrating how it could be applied to perception and learning ( Wertheimer, 1938 ). In many ways, the work of the Gestalt psychologists served as a precursor to the rise of cognitive psychology in America ( Benjamin, 2007 ).
- Behaviorism emerged early in the 20th century and became a major force in American psychology.
- Championed by psychologists such as John B.
- Watson (1878–1958) and B.F.
- Skinner (1904–1990), behaviorism rejected any reference to mind and viewed overt and observable behavior as the proper subject matter of psychology.
Through the scientific study of behavior, it was hoped that laws of learning could be derived that would promote the prediction and control of behavior. Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) influenced early behaviorism in America. His work on conditioned learning, popularly referred to as classical conditioning, provided support for the notion that learning and behavior were controlled by events in the environment and could be explained with no reference to mind or consciousness ( Fancher, 1987 ).
- For decades, behaviorism dominated American psychology.
- By the 1960s, psychologists began to recognize that behaviorism was unable to fully explain human behavior because it neglected mental processes.
- The turn toward a cognitive psychology was not new.
- In the 1930s, British psychologist Frederic C.
- Bartlett (1886–1969) explored the idea of the constructive mind, recognizing that people use their past experiences to construct frameworks in which to understand new experiences.
Some of the major pioneers in American cognitive psychology include Jerome Bruner (1915–), Roger Brown (1925–1997), and George Miller (1920–2012). In the 1950s, Bruner conducted pioneering studies on cognitive aspects of sensation and perception. Brown conducted original research on language and memory, coined the term ” flashbulb memory,” and figured out how to study the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon ( Benjamin, 2007 ).
Miller’s research on working memory is legendary. His 1956 paper “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information”is one of the most highly cited papers in psychology. A popular interpretation of Miller’s research was that the number of bits of information an average human can hold in working memory is 7 ± 2.
Around the same time, the study of computer science was growing and was used as an analogy to explore and understand how the mind works. The work of Miller and others in the 1950s and 1960s has inspired tremendous interest in cognition and neuroscience, both of which dominate much of contemporary American psychology.
In America, there has always been an interest in the application of psychology to everyday life. Mental testing is an important example. Modern intelligence tests were developed by the French psychologist Alfred Binet (1857–1911). His goal was to develop a test that would identify schoolchildren in need of educational support.
His test, which included tasks of reasoning and problem solving, was introduced in the United States by Henry Goddard (1866–1957) and later standardized by Lewis Terman (1877–1956) at Stanford University. The assessment and meaning of intelligence has fueled debates in American psychology and society for nearly 100 years.
Much of this is captured in the nature-nurture debate that raises questions about the relative contributions of heredity and environment in determining intelligence ( Fancher, 1987 ). Applied psychology was not limited to mental testing. What psychologists were learning in their laboratories was applied in many settings including the military, business, industry, and education.
The early 20th century was witness to rapid advances in applied psychology. Hugo Munsterberg (1863–1916) of Harvard University made contributions to such areas as employee selection, eyewitness testimony, and psychotherapy. Walter D. Scott (1869–1955) and Harry Hollingworth (1880–1956) produced original work on the psychology of advertising and marketing.
- Lillian Gilbreth (1878–1972) was a pioneer in industrial psychology and engineering psychology.
- Working with her husband, Frank, they promoted the use of time and motion studies to improve efficiency in industry.
- Lillian also brought the efficiency movement to the home, designing kitchens and appliances including the pop-up trashcan and refrigerator door shelving.
Their psychology of efficiency also found plenty of applications at home with their 12 children. The experience served as the inspiration for the movie Cheaper by the Dozen ( Benjamin, 2007 ). Clinical psychology was also an early application of experimental psychology in America.
- Lightner Witmer (1867–1956) received his Ph.D.
- In experimental psychology with Wilhelm Wundt and returned to the University of Pennsylvania, where he opened a psychological clinic in 1896.
- Witmer believed that because psychology dealt with the study of sensation and perception, it should be of value in treating children with learning and behavioral problems.
He is credited as the founder of both clinical and school psychology ( Benjamin & Baker, 2004 ). Although this is what most people see in their mind’s eye when asked to envision a “psychologist” the APA recognizes as many as 58 different divisions of psychology. As the roles of psychologists and the needs of the public continued to change, it was necessary for psychology to begin to define itself as a profession.
Without standards for training and practice, anyone could use the title psychologist and offer services to the public. As early as 1917, applied psychologists organized to create standards for education, training, and licensure. By the 1930s, these efforts led to the creation of the American Association for Applied Psychology (AAAP).
While the American Psychological Association (APA) represented the interests of academic psychologists, AAAP served those in education, industry, consulting, and clinical work. The advent of WWII changed everything. The psychiatric casualties of war were staggering, and there were simply not enough mental health professionals to meet the need.
- Recognizing the shortage, the federal government urged the AAAP and APA to work together to meet the mental health needs of the nation.
- The result was the merging of the AAAP and the APA and a focus on the training of professional psychologists.
- Through the provisions of National Mental Health Act of 1946, funding was made available that allowed the APA, the Veterans Administration, and the Public Health Service to work together to develop training programs that would produce clinical psychologists.
These efforts led to the convening of the Boulder Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology in 1949 in Boulder, Colorado. The meeting launched doctoral training in psychology and gave us the scientist-practitioner model of training. Similar meetings also helped launch doctoral training programs in counseling and school psychology.
- Throughout the second half of the 20th century, alternatives to Boulder have been debated.
- In 1973, the Vail Conference on Professional Training in Psychology proposed the scholar-practitioner model and the Psy.D.
- Degree (Doctor of Psychology).
- It is a training model that emphasizes clinical training and practice that has become more common ( Cautin & Baker, in press ).
Given that psychology deals with the human condition, it is not surprising that psychologists would involve themselves in social issues. For more than a century, psychology and psychologists have been agents of social action and change. Using the methods and tools of science, psychologists have challenged assumptions, stereotypes, and stigma.
- Founded in 1936, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) has supported research and action on a wide range of social issues.
- Individually, there have been many psychologists whose efforts have promoted social change.
- Helen Thompson Woolley (1874–1947) and Leta S.
- Hollingworth (1886–1939) were pioneers in research on the psychology of sex differences.
Working in the early 20th century, when women’s rights were marginalized, Thompson examined the assumption that women were overemotional compared to men and found that emotion did not influence women’s decisions any more than it did men’s. Hollingworth found that menstruation did not negatively impact women’s cognitive or motor abilities. Mamie Phipps Clark and Kenneth Clark studied the negative impacts of segregated education on African-American children. Among the first generation of African American psychologists, Mamie Phipps Clark (1917–1983) and her husband Kenneth Clark (1914–2005) studied the psychology of race and demonstrated the ways in which school segregation negatively impacted the self-esteem of African American children.
Their research was influential in the 1954 Supreme Court ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education, which ended school segregation ( Guthrie, 2003 ). In psychology, greater advocacy for issues impacting the African American community were advanced by the creation of the Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) in 1968.
In 1957, psychologist Evelyn Hooker (1907–1996) published the paper “The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual,” reporting on her research that showed no significant differences in psychological adjustment between homosexual and heterosexual men. Her research helped to de-pathologize homosexuality and contributed to the decision by the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1973 ( Garnets & Kimmel, 2003 ).
Growth and expansion have been a constant in American psychology. In the latter part of the 20th century, areas such as social, developmental, and personality psychology made major contributions to our understanding of what it means to be human. Today neuroscience is enjoying tremendous interest and growth.
As mentioned at the beginning of the module, it is a challenge to cover all the history of psychology in such a short space. Errors of omission and commission are likely in such a selective review. The history of psychology helps to set a stage upon which the story of psychology can be told.
- This brief summary provides some glimpse into the depth and rich content offered by the history of psychology.
- The learning modules in the Noba psychology collection are all elaborations on the foundation created by our shared past.
- It is hoped that you will be able to see these connections and have a greater understanding and appreciation for both the unity and diversity of the field of psychology.1600s – Rise of empiricism emphasizing centrality of human observer in acquiring knowledge 1850s – Helmholz measures neural impulse / Psychophysics studied by Weber & Fechner 1859 – Publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species 1879 – Wundt opens lab for experimental psychology 1883 – First psychology lab opens in the United States 1887 – First American psychology journal is published: American Journal of Psychology 1890 – James publishes Principles of Psychology 1892 – APA established 1894 – Margaret Floy Washburn is first U.S.
woman to earn Ph.D. in psychology 1904 – Founding of Titchener’s experimentalists 1905 – Mary Whiton Calkins is first woman president of APA 1909 – Freud’s only visit to the United States 1913 – John Watson calls for a psychology of behavior 1920 – Francis Cecil Sumner is first African American to earn Ph.D.
in psychology 1921 – Margaret Floy Washburn is second woman president of APA 1930s – Creation and growth of the American Association for Applied Psychology (AAAP) / Gestalt psychology comes to America 1936- Founding of The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues 1940s – Behaviorism dominates American psychology 1946 – National Mental Health Act 1949 – Boulder Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology 1950s – Cognitive psychology gains popularity 1954 – Brown v.
Board of Education 1957 – Evelyn Hooker publishes T he Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual 1968 – Founding of the Association of Black Psychologists 1973 – Psy.D. proposed at the Vail Conference on Professional Training in Psychology 1988 – Founding of the American Psychological Society (now known as the Association for Psychological Science)
When did the era of the positive psychology started?
Origin – While the formal discipline of positive psychology has only existed since 2000, the concepts that form the basis of it have been the subject of empirical study since at least the 1980s, and present in religious and philosophical discourse for thousands of years.
- It has been influenced by humanistic as well as psychodynamic approaches to treatment.
- Predating the use of the term “positive psychology”, researchers within the field of psychology had been focusing on topics that would now be included under this new denomination.
- The term positive psychology dates back at least to 1954, when Maslow’s first edition of Motivation and Personality was published with a final chapter titled “Toward a Positive Psychology.” In the second edition published in 1970, he removed that chapter, saying in the preface that “a positive psychology is at least available today though not very widely.” There have been indications that psychologists since the 1950s have been increasingly focused on the promotion of mental health rather than merely treating mental illness.
From the beginning of psychology, the field has addressed the human experience using the ” Disease Model,” specifically studying and identifying the dysfunction of an individual. Positive psychology grew as an important field of study within psychology in 1998 when Martin Seligman chose it as the theme for his term as president of the American Psychological Association,
Is Freud the father of modern psychology?
Home > < Learn About Therapy > Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud was a late 19th and early 20th century neurologist. He is widely acknowledged as the father of modern psychology and the primary developer of the process of psychoanalysis,
Who is the father of modern psychotherapy?
Sigmund Freud can be regarded as the father of psychotherapy.
Who is the father of modern psychology and why?
|Wilhelm Wundt in 1902|
|Born||16 August 1832 Neckarau near Mannheim, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Confederation|
|Died||31 August 1920 (aged 88) Großbothen, Saxony, Germany|
|Education||University of Heidelberg ( MD, 1856)|
|Known for||Experimental psychology Cultural psychology Structuralism Apperception|
|Fields||Experimental psychology, Cultural psychology, philosophy, physiology|
|Institutions||University of Leipzig|
|Thesis||Untersuchungen über das Verhalten der Nerven in entzündeten und degenerierten Organen (Research of the Behaviour of Nerves in Inflamed and Degenerated Organs) (1856)|
|Doctoral advisor||Karl Ewald Hasse|
|Other academic advisors||Hermann von Helmholtz Johannes Peter Müller|
|Doctoral students||James McKeen Cattell, G. Stanley Hall, Oswald Külpe, Hugo Münsterberg, Ljubomir Nedić, Walter Dill Scott, George M. Stratton, Edward B. Titchener, Lightner Witmer|
|Influences||Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, Gustav Theodor Fechner, Johann Friedrich Herbart|
|Influenced||James Mark Baldwin, Emil Kraepelin, Sigmund Freud, Moritz Schlick|
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (; German: ; 16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the fathers of modern psychology, Wundt, who distinguished psychology as a science from philosophy and biology, was the first person ever to call himself a psychologist,
He is widely regarded as the “father of experimental psychology “. In 1879, at the University of Leipzig, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research. This marked psychology as an independent field of study. By creating this laboratory he was able to establish psychology as a separate science from other disciplines.
He also established the first academic journal for psychological research, Philosophische Studien (from 1883 to 1903) (followed by another: Psychologische Studien, from 1905 to 1917), to publish the institute’s research. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked Wundt’s reputation as first for “all-time eminence” based on ratings provided by 29 American historians of psychology.
Who is studied in modern psychology?
“Psychological” redirects here. For the Pet Shop Boys song, see Psychological (song), Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior in humans and non-humans. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts,
It is an academic discipline of immense scope, crossing the boundaries between the natural and social sciences, Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, linking the discipline to neuroscience, As social scientists, psychologists aim to understand the behavior of individuals and groups.
Ψ ( psi ), the first letter of the Greek word psyche from which the term psychology is derived (see below), is commonly associated with the science. A professional practitioner or researcher involved in the discipline is called a psychologist, Some psychologists can also be classified as behavioral or cognitive scientists,
Some psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, Others explore the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists are involved in research on perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality,
Psychologists’ interests extend to interpersonal relationships, psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas within social psychology, They also consider the unconscious mind. Research psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables,
Some, but not all, clinical and counseling psychologists rely on symbolic interpretation, While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts, psychology ultimately aims to benefit society.
Many psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing psychotherapy in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Other psychologists conduct scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior.
Who was the founder of modern psychology quizlet?
Wilhelm Wundt. Wilhelm Wundt opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. This was the first laboratory dedicated to psychology, and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern psychology. Indeed, Wundt is often regarded as the father of psychology.
Was the founder of modern psychology William James?
Why is William James famous? – William James, (born January 11, 1842, New York, New York, U.S.—died August 26, 1910, Chocorua, New Hampshire), American philosopher and psychologist, a leader of the philosophical movement of pragmatism and a founder of the psychological movement of functionalism,